Student of the Light

September 26, 2010

TIME, TIMES AND A HALF (3 ½ or 2 ½ Times?)

Please bear with the poor English of the author.

This time expression occurred three times in the whole Bible and these three instances do have minor differences between themselves. Although only minor, their differences should be taken into consideration if one will study them earnestly. Here are the three instances:

(Dan 7:25 KJV)  And he shall speak great words against the most High, and shall wear out the saints of the most High, and think to change times and laws: and they shall be given into his hand until a time and times and the dividing of time.

(Dan 12:7 KJV)  And I heard the man clothed in linen, which was upon the waters of the river, when he held up his right hand and his left hand unto heaven, and sware by him that liveth for ever that it shall be for a time, times, and an half; and when he shall have accomplished to scatter the power of the holy people, all these things shall be finished.

(Rev 12:14 KJV)  And to the woman were given two wings of a great eagle, that she might fly into the wilderness, into her place, where she is nourished for a time, and times, and half a time, from the face of the serpent.

It is widely believe that all the individual “time” in this time expression are cumulative and therefore, sum up to 3 ½ times: time (1) + times (2) + half time (½) = 3 ½ times. Each of the “time” in this expression is regarded as “year”, so, its total duration is 3 ½ years – (supposedly) in accord with 1260 day and 42 month periods of time. But is this the correct rendering of this time expression? Look at these two translations of Daniel 12:7:

(Dan 12:7 Brenton)  And I heard the man clothed in linen, who was over the water of the river, and he lifted up his right hand and his left hand to heaven, and sware by him that lives for ever, that it should be for a time of times and half a time: when the dispersion is ended they shall know all these things.

(Dan 12:7 from Library And I heard the man clad in linen, who was above the waters of the river, and he raised his right hand and his left hand to the heavens, and he swore by the Life of the world, that in the time of [two] times and a half, and when they have ended shattering the strength of the holy people, all these will end.

We can see here that it is only 2 ½ times. However, these two same translation both rendered Daniel 7:25 as 3 ½ times. Which is correct: 3 ½ times or 2 ½ times? Maybe we can come to a conclusion if we are going to compare these two renderings against each other in every occurrence of this time expression. We have to also look at the grammar side of it. Let’s first study Daniel 12:7.


(Dan 12:6 ISV)  One asked the man dressed in linen clothes, who was standing above the waters of the river, ‘How long until the fulfillment of the wonders?’
(Dan 12:7 ISV)  “I heard the man dressed in linen clothes, who was standing above the waters of the river as he lifted his right and left hands to heaven and swore by the one who lives forever that it would be for a time, times, and a half. When the shattering of the power of the holy people has occurred, all these things will conclude.”

These verses belong to a long passage that started in chapter 10. It is the last and final vision of the book of Daniel. Most will agree that the “wonders” in verse 6 started when the Word and Vision was given to Daniel – on the 3rd year of Cyrus king of Persia. Their end, as for me, is when the last king of the north comes to his end (Daniel 11:45). It is also the end of the shattering of the power of the holy people. The passage from Daniel 12:1 – 4 is just a comment (by the one who’s talking to Daniel) containing additional information, hints and clues.

In Daniel 10:1, we are told the Word and Vision came to Daniel in the third year of King Cyrus of Persia. Historians differ on their say about the actual date of this year – the 3rd regnal year of Cyrus King of Persia over Babylon. Most of them place this year from  537 BC to  532 BC. Remember this range of dates.

Our time expression is commonly viewed as units of year including its instance here in Daniel 12:7 but does its instance here in Daniel 12:7 really refers to units of year? Here are Strong’s and BDB’s definitions for the word “time” or “times” in Daniel 12:7:

Strong’s Hebrew Dictionary
H4150 מועדה    מעד    מועד mô‛êd  mô‛êd  mô‛âdâh
mo-ade’, mo-ade’, mo-aw-daw’
From H3259; properly an appointment, that is, a fixed time or season; specifically a festival; conventionally a year; by implication, an assembly (as convened for a definite purpose); technically the congregation; by extension, the place of meeting; also a signal (as appointed beforehand): – appointed (sign, time), (place of, solemn) assembly, congregation, (set, solemn) feast, (appointed, due) season, solemn (-ity), synagogue, (set) time (appointed).

H4150 מועדה  /  מעד  /  מועד
mô‛êd  /  mô‛êd  /  mô‛âdâh
BDB Definition:
1) appointed place, appointed time, meeting
1a) appointed time
1a1) appointed time (general)
1a2) sacred season, set feast, appointed season
1b) appointed meeting
1c) appointed place
1d) appointed sign or signal
1e) tent of meeting
Part of Speech: noun masculine
A Related Word by BDB/Strong’s Number: from H3259

If we will look at Strong’s definition, we will see that “year” (conventionally) is one of its meanings. But at BDB’s definition, there is no “year” as its meaning. This word has the meaning “appointed time” and as an appointed time it could be a time of any length. Common sense tells us that this Hebrew word could not mean “year” in this long passage even when its days are expanded to years. From the actual date of King Cyrus’ 3rd regnal year over Babylon up to now, the time that had elapsed is more than 2520 years. This is more than double the 1260 days/years the “time, times and a half” represent if rendered as 3 ½ times using the 360 day prophetic year. And there are still “wonders” that are not yet fulfilled at this time. So, how is that?

This Hebrew word H4150 was translated in the KJV as time, season, appointed, etc, but NOT as a year. Here is the itemized list of occurrences of this word according to KJC. H4150 According to KJC

Let’s take a look at the verses from KJC list where our word (H4150) was translated as “time” excluding Daniel 12:7.

(Exo 34:18 KJV)  The feast of unleavened bread shalt thou keep. Seven days thou shalt eat unleavened bread, as I commanded thee, in the time of the month Abib: for in the month Abib thou camest out from Egypt.

(1Sa 9:24 KJV)  And the cook took up the shoulder, and that which was upon it, and set it before Saul. And Samuel said, Behold that which is left! set it before thee, and eat: for unto this time hath it been kept for thee since I said, I have invited the people. So Saul did eat with Samuel that day.

NOTE: The word “time” in these verses was translated “appointed times” in other bible translations. As you can see in these verses, our word (H4150) is not by itself the actual duration of time but our word refers to it. Additionally, here are some verses where our word was translated into other English words in the KJV with the actual duration of time they refer to:

As Appointed:
Exo 23:15 Duration: 7 days
Num 9:2-3 Duration: 1 Day (14th day of the 1st month)

As Set:
Exo 9:5 Duration: 1 day
1Sam 13:8 Duration: 7 days
2Sam 20:4-5 Duration: 3 days

As Feast:
2Ch 30:22 Duration: 7 days

Now, you’ve seen that when our word was used to mean BDB’ definition – 1a) Appointed Time (1a1 and 1a2), it refers to an actual duration of time that is variable. You’ve also seen the unit of time our word has referred to – day(s).

Open up your bible again and read these verses – Leviticus 23:2, 4, 37, 44. Our word is in the plural form in all these verses. If you will read the whole chapter of Leviticus 23, you will see that our word refers to:
•    The Sabbath
•    Passover and Festival of Unleavened Bread
•    Firstfruits
•    Feast of Weeks
•    Feast of Trumpets
•    Day of Atonement
•    Feast of Tabernacles

Is not our word referring to days in all these appointed times?

I examined all the verses listed in the KJC list except those translated as “congregation” and have not found, according to my understanding, any instance that a “year” has been referred to by our word. There are two verses that seem a “year has been referred to – Exodus 13:10 and Deuteronomy 31:10. But, if you will analyze these verses and look to other bible translations you will see that season and/or days are meant and not year(s). I’m not saying that a year can not be referred to but in the case of Daniel 12:7, it could not be a year as explained above. Also, in light of these things, shouldn’t we (first) consider day(s) in instances where there are no information given on the actual duration of time?

How long therefore, are these appointed times? If you will read again Daniel 12:7 you will notice the verse is suggesting that we use God’s reckoning of time (the blue lettered words).

(Dan 12:7 ESV)  And I heard the man clothed in linen, who was above the waters of the stream; he raised his right hand and his left hand toward heaven and swore by him who lives forever that it would be for a time, times, and half a time, and that when the shattering of the power of the holy people comes to an end all these things would be finished.

The Second Book of Peter tells us of a time duration God reckons as a day.

(2Pe 3:8 NIV)  But do not forget this one thing, dear friends: With the Lord a day is like a thousand years, and a thousand years are like a day.


3 ½ Times = 3 ½ days = 3500 years (a thousand years for a day)
Let’s add 3500 years to the range of dates that most of the historians believe to be the 3rd regnal year of King Cyrus over Babylon and over the Jews. The resulting range of dates will be from 2963 AD to 2967 AD. No one will agree on these dates.

2 ½ Times = 2 ½ days = 2500 years (a thousand years for a day)
Adding 2500 years to the range 537 BC to 532 BC will result in 1964 AD to 1969 AD range (No year Zero between 1 BC and 1 AD). But there was no shattering of the power of the holy people that ended in these years. Even at the time of this writing, the last king of the north has not yet arrived on the scene. So, I think, the time frame – the shattering of the power of the holy people up to its end – should be added to the range of dates that resulted from the computation. None of us knows how long this will be. The historical events that happen within this range (1964 AD to 1969 AD) were:

1) The Six Day War in 1967 where the modern day nation of Israel became victorious.
2) The Vietnam War in which the USA directly got involved. The Americans did not win the war but they succeeded in stopping the spread of communism in that region of the world. At that time, communism is the biggest threat to Christianity, at least, to the Holy People living in the Far East. This event seems to be the beginning or part of the shattering of the power of the Holy People.

Grammar Side:

In this instance, there is no conjunction “and” between the 1st noun “time” and the 2nd noun “times.” In Hebrew and in other Semitic languages, there could be a form of genitive construction occurring when two nouns are adjacent to each other. The use of “construct state” is the standard way to do this in the old Semitic languages.

“In the older Semitic languages, the use of the construct state is the standard (often only) way to form a genitive construction with a semantically definite modified noun. The modified noun is placed in the construct state, which lacks any definite article (despite being semantically definite), and is often phonetically shortened (as in Biblical Hebrew). The modifying noun is placed directly afterwards, and no other word can intervene between the two.”

According to Hebrew grammar, the 1st noun in this relationship is the possessed and it is the noun that is in the construct state. So, we now understand why “our” time expression was translated as “for a time of times and a half” in Daniel 12:7 by Brenton (LXX) and by The Complete Tanach with Rashi’s Commentary at


(Dan 7:25 NIV)  He will speak against the Most High and oppress his saints and try to change the set times and the laws. The saints will be handed over to him for a time, times and half a time.

The “He” in this verse is the false prophet. Let’s compare this verse to Revelation 13:5-10. Here in Daniel 7, the false prophet was symbolized as the prominent horn of the 4th beast and he will speak against the Most High and will oppress God’s saints. In Revelation 13:5-10, he was depicted as the mouth of the composite beast which utters blasphemies against God and was given authority over every tribe and people and languages and nation where the saints of God will be living according to Revelation 5:9. Daniel 7:25 and Revelation 13:5-10 tell of the same time and event. Now, notice that in Revelation 13:5, it says that the mouth (or the beast itself) was allowed to exercise authority for 42 months. At this point in time, this 42 month period must be literal and not an expanded time frame (a year for a day) because of a hint from Revelation 17:10:

(Rev 17:10 ESV)  they are also seven kings, five of whom have fallen, one is, the other has not yet come, and when he does come he must remain only a little while.

So, our time expression here in Daniel 7:25 could be referring to units of literal “year” (solar or prophetic). Literal days seem to be too short for the events in Revelation 13:5-10. Here are Strong’s and BDB’s definitions of the single Aramaic word that was translated as “time” and “times” here:

Strong’s Hebrew Dictionary
H5732 עדּן ‛iddân id-dawn’
(Chaldee); from a root corresponding to that of H5708; a set time; technically a year: – time.

Brown-Driver-Briggs’ Hebrew Definitions
H5732 עדּן  (Aramaic) ‛iddân
BDB Definition:
1) time
1a) time (of duration)
1b) year
Part of Speech: noun masculine
A Related Word by BDB/Strong’s Number: from a root corresponding to that of H5708
Same Word by TWOT Number: 2900

Some of the readers might be surprised to know that the single Aramaic word here for “time” and “times” is not the same with that of Daniel 12:7. This book of Daniel was written partly in Hebrew and partly in Aramaic. The Aramaic part is from chapter 2:4 up to chapter 7:28 and the rest are in Hebrew.


3 ½ Times = 3 ½ years:
If the 42-month period in Rev 13:5 is rendered as solar months, each month would have an average of  30.436875 days. So, 42 months multiplied by 30.436875 days would result in 1278.34875 days. 1278.34875 days less our time expression which is rendered as 3 1/2 years (1260 days) in this comparison equals 18. 34875 days. The false prophet and/or the beast will have 18. 34875 days to prepare.

If the 42-month period in Rev 13:5 is rendered as months of prophetic years, each month will have 30 days. 42 months multiplied by 30 days will result in 1260 days – same as the number of days of our time expression if rendered as 3 ½ years. It is almost impossible for the holy people to be given to the false prophet and/ or the beast at the very day when he/it is allowed to exercise authority. But the possibility that a) the “time, times and a half time” period not based on the 42-month period in Rev 13:5 and b) the preparation is not to be included in the 42-month period, should both be also considered.

2 ½ Times = 2 ½ years. This interpretation of our time expression could be “for a time (of duration), times (2 years) and a half (half year).”
If it is rendered 42 months x 30.437 days (average days in a month) = 1278.354 days, then, the false prophet and/or the beast will have a year (360 days) and 18.354 days to prepare.

If the 42-month period in Rev 13:5 is rendered 42 months x 30 days = 1260 days, the false prophet and/or the beast will have exactly a year (360 days) to prepare.

Grammar Side:

In this variant, a conjunction “and” is present between the nouns “time” and “times,” so, a construct relationship can’t occur here. If this verse is going to be studied in its original written language, which is Aramaic, it will be seen that the conjunction “and” is not a standalone word. It is joined to the 2nd noun “time” as a prefix. This single letter prefix is the 6th letter waw or vav in the Semitic alphabet. This waw prefix which act as a particle conjunction can mean “and, but, then, now,” etc. and it is said that it has more meanings. In the Old Testament, both in the Hebrew and Aramaic parts, this prefix is usually treated as a consecutive conjunction and that is why in this function it is called the “consecutive waw.” But there are verses in the Old Testament where it serves as an explanatory conjunction. It is attached to a word or 1st word of a clause that tells something about the immediate preceding word or phrase in a more detailed or precise manner. This is called the “waw explicativum” or “explicative waw.” In this sense, this prefix is said to be like the English “that is.” See D. W. Baker, “Further Examples of the Waw Explicativum,” VT 30.2 (1980) or click the links below (needs registration for free full online reading):

Explicative waw applies not only to Biblical Hebrew but to Biblical Aramaic as well. There’s an Aramaic verse that contains a time expression structured similarly to our time expression and which is just 7 verses before Daniel 7:25, here’s the verse – Daniel 7:18:

It can be seen in this verse that a letter waw is prefixed to “unto” (underlined red). This waw prefix can function more clearly and effectively in this verse as an explicative than a consecutive conjunction: “and they shall safeguard  the kingdom  unto  the eonthat is, unto  eon of  the eons.” This verse demonstrates not only the occurrence of explicative waw in the Aramaic of the Old Testament but also of the occurrence of CONSTRUCT RELATIONSHIP (underlined blue) in the said part of the Bible!


(Rev 12:14 LITV)  And two wings of the great eagle were given to the woman, that she might fly into the wilderness, to her place, where she is nourished there a time, and times, and half a time, away from the serpent’s face.

This is the verse that contains our time expression. But first, we have to study and understand the verse below in relation to actual history because our time expression is based on it – the 1260 days.

(Rev 12:6 KJV)  And the woman fled into the wilderness, where she hath a place prepared of God, that they should feed her there a thousand two hundred and threescore days.

These two verses (6 and 14) are telling us of the same:

1)      place – wildersness
2)      event – nourishing
3)      start of the 1260 days period and of  time, and times, and half a time

Obviously, they differ in their focal point in time. It should be noted here that the last clause from verse 14 – away from the serpent’s face – correctly belongs to the nourishing and NOT to the flying. Eagle’s wings represent power and not the ability to flee. Read Jeremiah 48:40, Ezekiel 17:3, 7. And, also Exodus 19:4 but you might misunderstood the context here as fleeing – read the song of Moses and the children of Israel in Exodus 15 for the true meaning. The other symbolical meanings I know for “eagle’s wings” are not appropriate for Revelation 12:14. The context of this verse could not mean “fleeing to her place in the wilderness from the face of the serpent” because the woman did not leave her place. Being pursued or persecuted by the serpent, as for me, the first part of this verse could mean “the woman was given power that she might exercise it in the wilderness, to her place.”

Let’s go now to the actual historical fulfillment of these two verses.

You may have read or heard that this 1260-day period had started in 688 AD and ended in 1948. 688 AD is the year that the Dome of the Rock was built. Actually the date of its construction differs from historian to historian but according to New World Encyclopedia the Dome of the Rock was erected between 685 and 691 C.E.

It was built on the site of the Temple Mount. I believe, this Dome of the Rock is the desolating sacrilege recorded in Mathew 24 and Mark 13. You will notice in both accounts that the Lord Yeshua warns the people of those times to flee as soon as they see this desolating sacrilege standing up. This event and the succeeding ones in the Middle East might be the actual reason why the “woman” had to flee. I’m not saying the woman needs to see the actual desolating sacrilege standing up before she flees. Another thing, I would like to inform the readers who do not know that the Jews of those times or at any other time do not exclusively represent the woman. They are part or child of the woman (Revelation 12:17).

Now, let us go back to our time expression.

As was mentioned earlier, our time expression here is based on the 1260-day period (verse 6). “Day” is the unit of it and it is too short to be the unit referred to by our time expression which could possibly have a maximum of only 3 ½ units of time. 3 ½ days are too short for the events between verse 6 and verse 14 even when all 3 ½ days are expanded to years. But this 1260-day time frame is divisible by the 360-day PROPHETIC YEAR as every serious student of the Bible knows, When divided, these 1260 days will result in exactly 3 ½ prophetic years and this is the unit of time that our time expression refers to in verse 14 – prophetic years. The ASSIGNING of prophetic years as units of time referred to by our time expression here in Revelation 12 is applicable to any language and that is because of the dependency of our time expression to the 1260-day period and not on the characteristics of the language used.


3 ½ Times = 3 ½ years = 1260 days = 1260 years (a year for a day)
This rendering spans the entire 1260-day period of Revelation 12:6. It started in 688 AD and ended in 1948 AD.

2 ½ Times = 2 ½ years = 900 days = 900 years (a year for a day)
This interpretation started in 688 AD and ended in 1588 AD – the year of the Spanish Armada. (Read the author’s note at the end of this subtopic.)

Grammar Side:

For the Greek Primacist

(Rev 12:14 YLT)  and there were given to the woman two wings of the great eagle, that she may fly to the wilderness, to her place, where she is nourished a time, and times, and half a time, from the face of the serpent;

In this verse, it can be seen that a conjunction “and” is in between time and times. This verse is copied from Young’s Literal Translation of the Holy Bible which was translated from the N.T. Greek text(s). In the Greek texts, the conjunction “and” is a standalone word which is located between the 1st noun time and the 2nd noun times. It is the widely used Greek conjunction “kai.” Here is Strong’s definition of this word:

G2532 καί kai kahee
Apparently a primary particle, having a copulative and sometimes also a cumulative force; and, also, even, so, then, too, etc.; often used in connection (or composition) with other particles or small words: – and, also, both, but, even, for, if, indeed, likewise, moreover, or, so, that, then, therefore, when, yea, yet.

According to people who understand the grammar of the Greek language, this word kai can also be an explicative conjunction like the Hebrew/Aramaic conjunction waw. To know more about this function of kai, the reader can search the Internet himself/herself for article about it or he/she can simply click the link below:

Word Study on the Epexegetic Use of “kai” –

For the Aramaic Primacist

According to New Testament Aramaic primacists, this book of Revelation is part of what is known as the “Western Five.” The Western Five are the books II Peter, II John, III John, Jude and Revelation of the New Testament which are not included in the canonized New Testament Peshitta. Their originals, according to some, are yet to be found. We cannot analyze a verse of a book (Revelation) whose original is yet to found. But according to what we have already studied, there are only two possible forms this time expression could be in the Aramaic as well as in the Hebrew. It’s either the 1st noun singular time of it is in the construct state or its 2nd noun plural times is prefixed with the explicative waw. Which ever is the case remember Daniel 7:18:


If it is true that the book of Revelation was originally written in the Aramaic, then, it could be that the Aramaic word used here for “time” and “times” is the same word used in Daniel 7:25. The Aramaic word used in Daniel 7:25 is “iddan” which has “year” as one of its meanings. In the Aramaic New Testament codex BFBS/UBS that is said to be a Critical Text of about 70 to 80 Aramaic Manuscripts, the word used for “time” and “times” in Revelation 12:14 is a three letter Aramaic word that is consonantly the same with “iddan” of Daniel 7:25; they differ only in their vowel points. Here is the analysis page of Revelation 12:14 which was translated from the codex BFBS/UBS:

Analysis Page of verse Revelation 12:14

In the column “State” under the “Morphological information.” it will be seen that the construct relationship is the form used between the 1st noun “time” and the 2nd noun “times.” Notice also that there’s a construct relationship between the noun “half” and the last noun “time.”

The author of this article believes that the correct rendering of this time expression is 2 ½ times.

Author’s note on COMPARISON (Revelation 12:14)
As for me, this does not mean that Spain and its armada was the force used by the Dragon to persecute the Woman of Revelation 12. Each part of the graphical representation of the Red Dragon, that is, its heads, tail, horns symbolizes something that is related to power and authority such as kingdoms, empires and kings. Spain is not represented by any part of the Dragon. So, verse 13 does not automatically mean that she was the force used by the Dragon to persecute the Woman.

In verse 14, what is implied in regard to the two wings given to the Woman is the TIME DURATION that had elapsed from the start of the 1260-day period up to the time when she was able to fly with TWO WINGS (not just one). At that time, Great Britain became a leading power in Europe but she represented only one wing and it was logically the 2nd wing. This means that the 1st wing was given to the Woman at an earlier date. (This is not in conflict with verses 13-14.) There was no power or empire in Europe that could qualify to represent the 1st wing and was comparable to the 2nd wing (Great Britain) except Spain which became a global power before 1588 A.D. In 1571 and under the name Holy League, Spain, Venice, the Papal States, Savoy, Genoa and Malta fought in a great naval battle – the Battle of Lepanto (– against the Ottoman Empire’s navy. They destroyed and decisively defeated the fleet of the Muslim Turks.

Even though, Spain and Great Britain were the ones who were at war in the landmark year 1588 AD, this did not disqualify either of them to be the two wings or powers of the Woman of Revelation 12. Biblically and historically, infighting among God’s people happens. After 1588 AD, these two powers (wings of the Woman) continued to flex (fly) their military muscle in Europe (their place).


Here’s another “time” based prophecy:
(Rev 10:5 KJV)  And the angel which I saw stand upon the sea and upon the earth lifted up his hand to heaven,
(Rev 10:6 KJV)  And sware by him that liveth for ever and ever, who created heaven, and the things that therein are, and the earth, and the things that therein are, and the sea, and the things which are therein, that there should be time no longer:
(Rev 10:7 KJV)  But in the days of the voice of the seventh angel, when he shall begin to sound, the mystery of God should be finished, as he hath declared to his servants the prophets.

In this passage you will notice in verse 5 and 6 (blue lettered words), that it is also suggesting we use God’s reckoning of time as in Daniel 12:7. Additionally, it includes another hint (red lettered words). Compare it with the verse below:
(Exo 20:11 KJV)  For in six days the LORD made heaven and earth, the sea, and all that in them is, and rested the seventh day: wherefore the LORD blessed the sabbath day, and hallowed it.

Together, are they telling of a 6000-year period that is about to end very shortly? The age of the Earth is NOT meant here by the 6000-year period. You may want to read another article where this subtopic belongs to: The Time Settings of the Angel with the Little Scroll and the Two Witnesses.




The Olivet Prophecy: Arrow of the Lord

Revelation And Its Mysteries

Time, Times And A Half (3 ½ or 2 ½ Times?)

Daniel’s 1290 and 1335 Days

The Man and His Number (Tav Resh Samech Vav)

Revelation 12

The Red Dragon, Composite Beast, and Scarlet Beast of Revelation

The 4 Living Creatures And The 24 Elders



NOTICE: This article is NOT copyrighted.  Anyone may copy it in whole or in part and/or distribute it. Permission is not required. It may also expand or change in form in the future. If anything is found to be in error then it will be corrected or deleted without prior notice.


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