2300 Evenings and Mornings

NOTE: Please bear with the poor English of the author of this article and be it known that this article is still a work in progress.

The “Vision”

The “vision” that appeared to Daniel apparently started with the portrayal of a ram in v3 which emblematizes the Medo-Persian Empire.

Dan 8:1-4 KJV
(1)  In the third year of the reign of king Belshazzar a vision appeared unto me, even unto me Daniel, after that which appeared unto me at the first.
(2)  And I saw in a vision; and it came to pass, when I saw, that I was at Shushan in the palace, which is in the province of Elam; and I saw in a vision, and I was by the river of Ulai.
(3)  Then I lifted up mine eyes, and saw, and, behold, there stood before the river a ram which had two horns: and the two horns were high; but one was higher than the other, and the higher came up last.
(4)  I saw the ram pushing westward, and northward, and southward; so that no beasts might stand before him, neither was there any that could deliver out of his hand; but he did according to his will, and became great.

(Dan 8:20 KJV)  The ram which thou sawest having two horns are the kings of Media and Persia.

According to secular history, Cyrus, the first Medo-Persian king, captured Babylon on 539 BC.

The 2300 evening morning period is reckoned in two ways by students of the Bible:

  1. as 1150 days/years or
  2. as 2300 days/years.

If we will calculate 2300 evenings and mornings from 539 BC, the corresponding results would be:

1150 days (no year “zero”):
539 BC + 1150 = 611 AD

2300 days (no year “zero”):
539 BC + 2300 = 1761 AD

Does any of them make sense?

Some people place the start of the vision of the 2300 at the time of the little horn of v9 which the following verse seems to support:

(Dan 8:26 KJV)  And the vision of the evening and the morning which was told is true: wherefore shut thou up the vision; for it shall be for many days. 

Here is another translation of the same verse:

(Dan 8:26 YLT)  And the appearance of the evening and of the morning, that is told, is true; and thou, hide thou the vision, for it is after many days.’

The verse seems to be telling that the start of the count of the vision of the 2300 is not at the time of Cyrus who captured Babylon at the time of Belshazzar because the latter’s reign if reckoned as a day for a year would not be many. But, does the count really start with the little horn (v9) who is believe to be coming out in our near future? Let’s study the other verses.

Dan 8:1-2 KJV+
(1)  In the thirdH7969 yearH8141 of the reignH4438 of kingH4428 BelshazzarH1112 a visionH2377 appearedH7200 untoH413 me, even unto meH589 Daniel,H1840 after thatH310 which appearedH7200 untoH413 me at the first.H8462
(2)  And I sawH7200 in a vision;H2377 and it came to pass,H1961 when I saw,H7200 that IH589 was at ShushanH7800 in the palace,H1002 whichH834 is in the provinceH4082 of Elam;H5867 and I sawH7200 in a vision,H2377 and IH589 wasH1961 byH5921 the riverH180 of Ulai.H195

A vision appeared to Daniel. The Hebrew word “vision” (H2377) at the 1st and 2nd verses has no definite article prefixed to it but this same particular word (H2377) is written with a definite article which is prefixed to it in verses 13, 15, 17, and 26. [Only in v1 and v2 that this word has no definite article.] Here’s a quote about Hebrew definite articles from Learn Biblical Hebrew:

Lesson 1.1: The Definite Article

A noun in both English and Hebrew will be either definite or indefinite. A definite noun is a specific instance of the noun suc as “that horse“, “Jim’s horse“, “the horse“). An indefinite noun, by contrast is a non-specific instance (“a horse“). Definite and indefinite nouns in Biblical Hebrew are expressed slightly differently relative to English. In Hebrew there is no indefinite article. In other words, biblical Hebrew does not have a counterpart to the English indefinite article, ‘a’ or ‘an’.

–  http://learn-biblical-hebrew.com/lessons/lesson-1-articles/lesson-1-1-definite-article/

It can now be grammatically realized that the scope of the definite “vision” (H2377) mentioned in verses 13, 15, 17, and 26 does not necessarily have to encompass the whole of the said indefinite “vision” (H2377) in v1-2 and this can be seen in the last clause of v14 which reads:

(Dan 8:14 KJV)  And he said unto me, Unto two thousand and three hundred days; then shall the sanctuary be cleansed.

The clause is clearly not part of the definite vision of the 2300 evenings and mornings. It belongs to another timeframe that occurs AFTER the definite one but it’s part of vision (not definite) that Daniel said in v1-2 to have appeared to him.

Now, aside from the Hebrew word H2377 which is rendered as “vision” in the whole chapter (KJV), there is another Hebrew word rendered also as “vision” by several translations of the Old Testament. This is the Hebrew word H4758 which can be found in verses 16, 26, and 27. Here is its definition:

BDB Definition:
1) sight, appearance, vision
1a) sight, phenomenon, spectacle, appearance, vision
1b) what is seen
1c) a vision (supernatural)
1d) sight, vision (power of seeing)
Part of Speech: noun masculine
A Related Word by BDB/Strong’s Number: from H7200

This word came from H7200 which is a verb and H7200 was translated as “appeared” in v1 in the KJV and as “saw” in the other parts of chapter 8. Here is its definition:

BDB Definition:
1) to see, look at, inspect, perceive, consider
1a) (Qal)
1a1) to see
1a2) to see, perceive
1a3) to see, have vision
1a4) to look at, see, regard, look after, see after, learn about, observe, watch, look upon, look out, find out
1a5) to see, observe, consider, look at, give attention to, discern, distinguish
1a6) to look at, gaze at
1b) (Niphal)
1b1) to appear, present oneself
1b2) to be seen
1b3) to be visible
1c) (Pual) to be seen
1d) (Hiphil)
1d1) to cause to see, show
1d2) to cause to look intently at, behold, cause to gaze at
1e) (Hophal)
1e1) to be caused to see, be shown
1e2) to be exhibited to
1f) (Hithpael) to look at each other, face
Part of Speech: verb
A Related Word by BDB/Strong’s Number: a primitive root

The question now is: when did the definite vision (H2377) of 2300 evenings mornings in v13 start?

The Definite Vision

Let’s study the passages that could help Daniel understand what he saw.

(Dan 8:16 KJV)  And I heardH8085 a man’sH120 voiceH6963 betweenH996 the banks of Ulai,H195 which called,H7121 and said,H559 Gabriel,H1403 make thisH1975 man to understandH995 (H853) the vision.H4758

Gabriel was told to make Daniel understand the vision. The word “vision” rendered by the KJV in this verse is not the word “vision” (H2377) in the question in v13. The word “vision” in v16 is the noun H4758 which came from the verb H7200. In other words, Gabriel was told to make Daniel understand what he had seen, that is, maybe, the vision (H2377) from v3 up to v12 including the cleansing of the place of the sanctuary in v14, not just the definite vision.

Gabriel obeyed what was commanded to him:

(Dan 8:17 KJV)  So he cameH935 nearH681 where I stood:H5977 and when he came,H935 I was afraid,H1204 and fellH5307 uponH5921 my face:H6440 but he saidH559 untoH413 me, Understand,H995 O sonH1121 of man:H120 forH3588 at the timeH6256 of the endH7093 shall be the vision.H2377

The word “vision” in this verse is definite and it is the same definite “vision” asked in v13 – the definite vision of the 2300 evenings and mornings. What Gabriel told to Daniel should help him understand the appearance (H4758) he had seen (H7200). That could include the understanding of the structure of the whole indefinite vision and the relative position within it of the definite one.

In the translation of v17 above, it is said that the definite vision is for the time of the end. That should help Daniel understand the appearance (H4758) if that is the correct rendering. Is that really correct? Let’s look at the Hebrew noun “time” (H6256) used in the verse:


From H5703; time, especially (adverbially with preposition) now, when, etc.: –    + after, [al-] ways, X certain, + continually, + evening, long, (due) season, so [long] as, [even-, evening-, noon-] tide, ([meal-], what) time, when.

Look at the the two Hebrew characters that consist the word for “time” – עֵת. Together, they make up the root or lexeme word of “time” but in v17, the word is prefixed with another Hebrew character – ל – it is the 12th letter which is named as “Lamed” or “Lamedh.” Below is a quote from Wikipedia about the Hebrew letter: 

As a prefix, it can have two purposes:

  • It can be attached to verb roots, designating the infinitive (Daber means “speak”, Ledaber means to speak).
  • It can also act as a preposition meaning “to” or “for” [emphasis added].  –

–  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lamedh#Significance

The word לעת which is already prefixed with Lamed can mean “for era” or “to era.” Below is the Hebrew rendering of Dan 8:17 followed by an alternate English rendering:

(Dan 8:17 Hebrew OT)  ויבא אצל עמדי ובבאו נבעתי ואפלה על־פני ויאמר אלי הבן בן־אדם כי לעת־קץ החזון׃

(Dan 8:17)  So he came near where I stood: and when he came, I was afraid, and fell upon my face: but he said unto me, Understand, O son of man: for to-time-of end shall be the vision.

NOTE: The conjunction “for” after the word “man” in the verse is not part of “to-time-of.” The word “for” numbered as H3588 is translated as “that” in other Bible versions.

“To time of end” means “until end.” Which is correct:

“Understand, O son of man: that for-time-of end shall be the vision.”


“Understand, O son of man: that to-time-of end shall be the vision.”?

Is the definite vision (H2377) of the 2300 evenings and mornings still future in our time (June 2018)?

(Dan 7:7 KJV)  After this I saw in the night visions, and behold a fourth beast, dreadful and terrible, and strong exceedingly; and it had great iron teeth: it devoured and brake in pieces, and stamped the residue with the feet of it: and it was diverse from all the beasts that were before it; and it had ten horns.
(Dan 7:8 KJV)  I considered the horns, and, behold, there came up among them another little horn, before whom there were three of the first horns plucked up by the roots: and, behold, in this horn were eyes like the eyes of man, and a mouth speaking great things.

It can be seen from the passage above that stamping precedes the coming out of the little horn before whom three of the ten horns were plucked up. At the time of the ten horns, the beast would be on its 7th head (read Revelation chapter 17), so, there’s a trampling that occurs before the 7th head of the beast.

What about the two verses below? Aren’t they telling of a trampling at the time of the 7th head of the beast?

(Rev 13:5 KJV)  And there was given unto him a mouth speaking great things and blasphemies; and power was given unto him to continue forty and two months.

(Rev 11:2 KJV)  But the court which is without the temple leave out, and measure it not; for it is given unto the Gentiles: and the holy city shall they tread under foot forty and two months.

APPARENTLY  they are, but obviously it is not for 2300 days or 1150 days. Before we tackle these two verses, let’s go back first to our main topic so that the reader doesn’t have to wait in suspense. Here again is Dan 8:17 with the preposition “to”:

(Dan 8:17)  So he came near where I stood: and when he came, I was afraid, and fell upon my face: but he said unto me, Understand, O son of man: that to-time-of end shall be the vision.

Gabriel told Daniel to UNDERSTAND and he gives an ending delimiter to the definite vision. Surely, that would help Daniel understand what he had seen if he knew the time of the end. Now, is there a starting delimeter? Seemingly, there is. Verse 17 contains information regarding the ending delimiter and the word “understand” numbered H995. In v5, the word “understanding” or “considering” with the same Strong’s number is also present.

(Dan 8:5 KJV+)  And as IH589 wasH1961 considering,H995 behold,H2009 an he goatH6842 H5795 cameH935 fromH4480 the westH4628 onH5921 the faceH6440 of the wholeH3605 earth,H776 and touchedH5060 notH369 the ground:H776 and the goatH6842 had a notableH2380 hornH7161 betweenH996 his eyes.H5869

Unlike in Dan 7:7-8, it is not mentioned above what Daniel is considering or understanding. Below is a parsed version of the verse above and it’s more reliable.

(Hebrew is read from right to left.) The clause containing “considering” or “understanding” is written after the initial vision of the ram but before the vision of the goat. It can be said that Daniel started to be considering or discerning at that moment. Remember that verse 26 seems to be telling that the start of the count of the definite vision of the 2300 is not at the time of Cyrus. Could it be that its beginning is at the time of the goat? Let’s look at history. Here is a quote from Wikipedia:

During his youth, Alexander was tutored by Aristotle until age 16. After Philip’s assassination in 336 BC, he succeeded his father to the throne and inherited a strong kingdom and an experienced army. Alexander was awarded the generalship of Greece and used this authority to launch his father’s pan-Hellenic project to lead the Greeks in the conquest of Persia.[4][5] In 334 BC, he invaded the Achaemenid Empire (Persian Empire) and began a series of campaigns that lasted ten years. Following the conquest of Anatolia, Alexander broke the power of Persia in a series of decisive battles, most notably the battles of Issus and Gaugamela. He subsequently overthrew Persian King Darius III and conquered the Achaemenid Empire in its entirety.[b] At that point, his empire stretched from the Adriatic Sea to the Indus River.

–  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alexander_the_Great

A quote from Britannica.com

In spring 334 he crossed the Dardanelles, leaving Antipater, who had already faithfully served his father, as his deputy in Europe with over 13,000 men; he himself commanded about 30,000 foot and over 5,000 cavalry, of whom nearly 14,000 were Macedonians and about 7,000 allies sent by the Greek League.

–  https://www.britannica.com/biography/Alexander-the-Great

Now, below is a quote from Adam Clarke’s Commentary:

Daniel 8:14

Unto two thousand and three hundred days – Though literally it be two thousand three hundred evenings and mornings. Yet I think the prophetic day should be understood here, as in other parts of this prophet, and must signify so many years. If we date these years from the vision of the he-goat, (Alexander’s invading Asia), this was A.M. 3670, b.c. 334; and two thousand three hundred years from that time will reach to a.d. 1966, or one hundred and forty-one years from the present a.d. 1825. This will bring it near to the time mentioned Dan_7:25 (note), where see the note.

–  Adam Clarke

His comment on Dan 8:14 was a prediction because it is indicated in it the year he made his comment, A.D. 1825, 142 years before the Six Day War which occurred in 1967 AD. His computation does not include year “zero” between 1 BC and 1 AD. Was he correct, wrong, or short of just a year? Let’s examine “evenings and mornings.” In the first chapter of Genesis it is written:

Gen 1:3-5 KJV+
(3)  And GodH430 said,H559 Let there beH1961 light:H216 and there wasH1961 light.H216
(4)  And GodH430 sawH7200 (H853) the light,H216 thatH3588 it was good:H2896 and GodH430 dividedH914 H996 the lightH216 fromH996 the darkness.H2822
(5)  And GodH430 calledH7121 the lightH216 Day,H3117 and the darknessH2822 he calledH7121 Night.H3915 And the eveningH6153 and the morningH1242 wereH1961 the firstH259 day.H3117

It is written here how the Hebrew “day” (H3117) was defined as “evening and morning.” The word H3117 can also mean the day part of a 24 hour day. Let’s go back to the vision of the 2300 evenings and mornings.

(Dan 8:26 KJV+)  And the visionH4758 of the eveningH6153 and the morningH1242 whichH834 was toldH559 is true:H571 wherefore shut thou upH859 H5640 the vision;H2377 forH3588 it shall be for manyH7227 days.H3117

The Hebrew word used for “days” in the verse above is the same Hebrew word in Gen 1:5. Also the Hebrew words for “evenings” and “mornings” in Dan 8:14 are the same words used in Gen 1:5. So, whether the last clause of Dan 8:26 above means “for it shall be for many days” or “for it is after many days” as rendered by other Bible versions, the word “days” could be a hint as to the reckoning of “evenings and mornings” in v14 – 2300 prophetic days/years and not 1150.

In Genesis chapter 1, an evening and a morning denote a particular day. If we will treat the 2300 evenings and mornings in the same manner and make 334-333 BC the 1st particular day/year, the 2300th day/year would be on 1966-1967 AD (no year “zero”). We should use the calendar God gave to Israel.

Exo 12:1-2 KJV
(1)  And the LORD spake unto Moses and Aaron in the land of Egypt, saying,
(2)  This month shall be unto you the beginning of months: it shall be the first month of the year to you.

Exo 13:3-4 KJV
(3)  And Moses said unto the people, Remember this day, in which ye came out from Egypt, out of the house of bondage; for by strength of hand the LORD brought you out from this place: there shall no leavened bread be eaten.
(4)  This day came ye out in the month Abib.

Exodus chapters 12 and 13 are part of a continuous passage.

The month of Abib is also known as “Nisan.” A quote from Wikipedia:

Nisan (or NissanHebrewנִיסָן‎, Standard Nisan Tiberian Nîsān) on the Assyrian calendar is the first month, and on the Hebrew calendar is the first month of the ecclesiastical year and the seventh month (eighth, in leap year) of the civil year. The name of the month is of AssyrianBabylonian origin; in the Torah it is called the month of the Aviv. (e.g. Exodus 13:4 בְּחֹ֖דֶשׁ הָאָבִֽיב ḥōḏeš hā-’āḇîḇAssyrians today refer to the month as the “month of happiness.” It is a spring month of 30 days. Nisan usually falls in March–April on the Gregorian calendar. In the Book of Esther in the Tanakh it is referred to as Nisan. Karaite Jews interpret it as referring to the month in which barley was ripe.

–  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nisan

This spring month usually falls on March-April.

The 2300th year occurred from March 22, 1966 to April 10, 1967 (Hebcal). In the very next day/year after the 2300th day/year, on the 26th day of the 2nd month (Iyyar) of God’s calendar which is June 5, 1967 in the Gregorian, the Six Day War started. Below is a short quote from www.brittannica. com:

Six-Day War, also called June War or Third Arab-Israeli War, brief war that took place June 5–10, 1967, and was the third of the Arab-Israeli warsIsrael’s decisive victory included the capture of the Sinai PeninsulaGaza StripWest Bank, Old City of Jerusalem, and the Golan Heights; the status of these territories subsequently became a major point of contention in the Arab-Israeli conflict.

–  https://www.britannica.com/event/Six-Day-War

A quote from Wikipedia:

Impact of reunification on worship

Reunification ended the programmatic Islamization of Jerusalem by the government of Jordan, a policy that had included the destruction of dozens of synagogues; the imposition of Arabic-language, government-issued textbooks in Christian schools; a ban on the purchase of property by churches; a ban on church funding of social and medical services, including hospitals; and a complete ban on visits to Jewish holy places by Jewish pilgrims.

Freedom of worship by members of all faiths was restored immediately following reunification.

The narrow, approximately 120 square metres (1,300 sq ft) pre-1948 alley along the wall used informally for Jewish prayer was enlarged to 2,400 square metres (26,000 sq ft), with the entire Western Wall Plaza covering 20,000 square metres (4.9 acres).[7]In later years, synagogues demolished during the Jordanian rule, including the Hurva Synagogue were rebuilt.[8]

–  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Reunification_of_Jerusalem#Impact_of_reunification

The unification of Jerusalem in June 1967 AD signals the end of the 2300 evenings and mornings and the start of the cleansing/restoration of the Sanctuary or Holy Place but it is not an instant process; it is still going on even at our time. There are still structures in the Temple Mount that ought not to be there.

The time frame of the restoration/cleansing is not part of the definite vision of the 2300 evenings and mornings and according to what has been presented so far in this article, it can be inferred that this time frame correspondingly includes some events made known to Daniel by Gabriel – the bold lettered sentence in the following verse:

(Dan 8:25 KJV)  And through his policy also he shall cause craft to prosper in his hand; and he shall magnify himself in his heart, and by peace shall destroy many: he shall also stand up against the Prince of princes; but he shall be broken without hand.

According to the above calculations, Islam is the power that we should look at since it’s the one pointed to by the actual completion of the duration of the 2300 evenings and mornings but there are some things that must be considered. The reader could skip the next topic (read it later) and go directly to the topic “The Little Horn” if he/she chooses to do so.

…to the time of the end

When is the time of the End? This is a mystery but it can be known in the pages of the Holy Scriptures and History.

(Mat 24:15 KJV)  When ye therefore shall see the abomination of desolation, spoken of by Daniel the prophet, stand in the holy place, (whoso readeth, let him understand:)

The construction of the Dome of the Rock was the fulfillment of the setting up of the abomination that desolates. At that time it was already time of the end! Yes, it was and there are solid proofs. Read the following short articles:

Daniel’s 1290 and 1335 Days

An interesting short article which tells when the time of the end comes.

Olivet Prophecy: Part 1

This is a short introductory section of the whole article written to help the reader understand the other sections.

Olivet Prophecy: Part 3

(Mat 24:6 KJV)  And ye shall hear of wars and rumours of wars: see that ye be not troubled: for all these things must come to pass, but the end is not yet.

Olivet Prophecy: Part 4

(Mat 24:14 KJV)  And this gospel of the kingdom shall be preached in all the world for a witness unto all nations; and then shall the end come.

Let’s continue with our topic.

(Dan 8:19 KJV)  And he said, Behold, I will make thee know what shall be in the last end of the indignation: for at the time appointed the end shall be.

There seems to be an error in the KJV rendering of the verse, here’s another translation of it:

(Dan 8:19 MKJV)  And he said, Behold, I will make you know what shall happen in the last end of the indignationH2195. For it is for the time appointed for the end.

It is within the appointed time frame of the end the latter part of the indignation will occur.

What “indignationH2195” in the verse above is meant? There are other Hebrew words for indignation as well as for wrath, anger, and fury that can be found in the Bible: H5678, H639, H2740, H7110, H2534, H3708. Now, read a verse from the 11th Chapter of Daniel:

(Dan 11:36 KJV)  And the king shall do according to his will; and he shall exalt himself, and magnify himself above every god, and shall speak marvellous things against the God of gods, and shall prosper till the indignationH2195 be accomplished: for that that is determined shall be done.

The “indignation” in the two verses above are one and the same Hebrew word – H2195. If this indignation is the Wrath of God that consists of the symbolic treading of the Great Winepress (Rev 14:18-20), and the Seven Last Plagues (Rev 16:1-21) which will culminate in the Day of the Lord, would the king (Dan 11:36) prosper till the wrath be accomplished completely? Clearly, it’s a NO!!!

Jer 30:23-24 KJV
(23)  Behold, the whirlwind of the LORD goeth forth with fury, a continuing whirlwind: it shall fall with pain upon the head of the wicked.
(24)  The fierce anger of the LORD shall not return, until he have done it, and until he have performed the intents of his heart: in the latter days ye shall consider it.

The “indignation” in Dan 8:19 and 11:36 is not the Wrath of God which will culminate in the Day of the Lord. Even just at the starting part of the Wrath of God, the king or the little horn will surely stop progressing.

Many Bible Commentators say that the said indignation (Dan 8:19, 11:36) is God’s anger towards the House of Israel and the House of Judah. The author doesn’t know when this indignation of God against them started. But maybe, just maybe, it ended after the time of Jacob’s Trouble (Jer 30:7), after World War 2 which is the last part of the Great Tribulation. (Read The Great Tribulation GT.) That was over 70 years ago at the time of this writing and almost all of us know that the 7th head of the Beast has not yet arrived. When he arrives, he will still progress (read the next paragraph), then, after his appointed time, the Wrath of God (Jer 30:23-24) will come which he won’t get pass through progressing.

In Dan 8:19, it is written that Gabriel will make Daniel know what shall be in the last end of the indignation and from v20 up to v25 he explained what Daniel had seen. Now, if we will look closer we will see that what he explained in v20-22 are surely not part of the last end of the indignation, are they? The last end of the indignation would occur within the appointed time of the end. Now, could it be that the last sentence in the following verse is also not part of the last end of the indignationH2195 because the indignationH2195 of God toward the Houses of Israel and Judah is already past at that time?

(Dan 8:25 ISV)  Through his skill he’ll cause deceit to prosper under his leadership. He’ll promote himself and will destroy many while they are secure. He’ll take a stand against the Prince of Princes, yet he’ll be crushed without human help.

A Pattern?

The textual structure of the whole indefinite vision (v3-v14) and the relative position within it of the definite one (v5-v12)…

have a resemblance with…

the textual structure of the whole explanation (v20-v25c) and the relative position within it of the events of “last end of the indignation” (v23-v25b).

The Historical Interpretation

The Four Kingdoms after Alexander

(Dan 8:8 KJV)  Therefore the he goat waxed very great: and when he was strong, the great horn was broken; and for it came up four notable ones toward the four winds of heaven.
(Dan 8:9 KJV)  And out of one of them came forth a little horn, which waxed exceeding great, toward the south, and toward the east, and toward the pleasant land.

The word “them” in the last verse is understood to mean the four kingdoms into which Alexander’s kingdom was divided. History tells about the places in time of these four kingdoms.

305 BC – 30 BC

312 BC–63 BC

282 BC–133 BC

306 BC – 168 BC

Note that the Ptolemaic Kingdom was the last to become dissolved. Now read the passage below:

(Dan 8:22 KJV)  Now that being broken, whereas four stood up for it, four kingdoms shall stand up out of the nation, but not in his power.
(Dan 8:23 KJV)  And in the latter time of their kingdom, when the transgressors are come to the full, a king of fierce countenance, and understanding dark sentences, shall stand up.

At the time of the little horn or the king of fierce countenance, the four kingdoms of the four notable ones are written in v23 as a singular “kingdom” and this can’t be the Seleucid Kingdom. This disqualifies Antiochus IV Epiphanes to be the “little horn” of v9 because at his time as king of the Seleucid Kingdom (175 BC until his death in 164 BC), the Ptolemaic Kingdom was still existing and it even outlived his kingdom. But even the Ptolemaic Kingdom couldn’t be “their kingdom” in v23 because at its time, no king of fierce countenance, and understanding dark sentences had ever stood up.

The Fulness of the Falling Away

Continuing to the 2nd clause of v23, KJV, RV, and ASV rendered it as:

“when the transgressors are come to the full”

The clause is rendered differently by different translators of the Old Testament. Here are some of the other renderings

ISV: “as the desecrations proceed”

YLT: “about the perfecting of the transgressors”

ESV: “when the transgressors have reached their limit”

Will the king of fierce countenance stand only when the transgressors are already come to the full? Isn’t this king a transgressor also and by his skill, will cause a great number of people to transgress? Let’s consider “dark sentences” included in the verse; here is its definition:

H2420 חידה chı̂ydâh
BDB Definition:
1) riddle, difficult question, parable, enigmatic saying or question, perplexing saying or question
1a) riddle (dark obscure utterance)
1b) riddle, enigma (to be guessed)
1c) perplexing questions (difficult)
1d) double dealing (with ‘havin’)
Part of Speech: noun feminine

This word occurs 17 times in the Old Testament according to e-Sword Bible search program.

Below are two passages where the particular Hebrew word was used by God Himself to describe a KIND of His sayings:

Num 12:6-8 RV
(6)  And he said, Hear now my words: if there be a prophet among you, I the LORD will make myself known unto him in a vision, I will speak with him in a dream.
(7)  My servant Moses is not so; he is faithful in all mine house:
(8)  with him will I speak mouth to mouth, even manifestly, and not in dark speeches (H2420); and the form of the LORD shall he behold: wherefore then were ye not afraid to speak against my servant, against Moses?

Eze 17:1-3 KJV
(1)  And the word of the LORD came unto me, saying,
(2)  Son of man, put forth a riddle (H2420), and speak a parable unto the house of Israel;
(3)  And say, Thus saith the Lord GOD; A great eagle with great wings, longwinged, full of feathers, which had divers colours, came unto Lebanon, and took the highest branch of the cedar:

“Dark sayings” could be prophecies spoken by God. It could also mean the Law or the Torah:

Psa 78:1-2 KJV
(1)  Maschil of Asaph. Give ear, O my people, to my law (H8451): incline your ears to the words of my mouth.
(2)  I will open my mouth in a parable: I will utter dark sayings (H2420) of old:

The word “law” (H8451) in v1 is: 

H8451 תֹּרָה    תּוֹרָה
tôrâh    tôrâh
to-raw’, to-raw’
From H3384; a precept or statute, especially the Decalogue or Pentateuch: – law.

In the New Testament, the Lord Yeshua spoke in parables:

(Mat 13:13 KJV)  Therefore speak I to them in parables: because they seeing see not; and hearing they hear not, neither do they understand.

The king or little horn is skilled in understanding the Holy Scriptures!!! Isn’t that what the last part of Dan 8:23 tells? Maybe he is in the know also of other sources of dark sayings.

Now, for what purpose would the mentioning of “understanding dark sentences” serve in v23? Look at the definition of the Hebrew word for “transgressors” below:

H6586 פָּשַׁע
pâsha‛ paw-shah’
A primitive root (rather identical with H6585 through the idea of expansion); to break away (from just authority), that is, trespass, apostatize, quarrel: – offend, rebel, revolt, transgress (-ion, -or).

(The word is basically a verb, a primitive root, and it is from this word that the noun “transgression” (H6588) in v12 and v13 is derived.)

Isn’t “to apostatize” the correct rendering of “transgressors” (H6586) in Dan 8:23? The king of fierce countenance is the son of perdition:

2Th 2:3-12 KJV
(3)  Let no man deceive you by any means: for that day shall not come, except there come a falling away first, and that man of sin be revealed, the son of perdition;
(4)  Who opposeth and exalteth himself above all that is called God, or that is worshipped; so that he as God sitteth in the temple of God, shewing himself that he is God.

He is also the king in Daniel 11:36-39:

Dan 11:36-37 KJV
(36)  And the king shall do according to his will; and he shall exalt himself, and magnify himself above every god, and shall speak marvellous things against the God of gods, and shall prosper till the indignation be accomplished: for that that is determined shall be done.
(37)  Neither shall he regard the God of his fathers, nor the desire of women, nor regard any god: for he shall magnify himself above all.

Let’s have a look at a parsed version of v23

Note that the “ones” in “the.ones-transgressing” is just an indicator of plurality (not the doer of transgressing). That is the explanation in the documentation of Concordant Hebrew English Sublinear:

plurals are rendered with the addition of the word ones (e.g., Ex. 25:20, סככים [skkim], ‘ones-overshadowing’).

–  http://www.scripture4all.org/help/isa3/textinfo/interlinear/HOT/CHES.html

 The quote can be found in: (2) The verbal system\ Participles.

Rendering the 2nd clause of v23 similar to but contextually different from the parsed version could be as thus:

(Dan 8:23) And in the latter time of their kingdom, as.to-come to the full-of the.things-apostatizing, a king of fierce countenance, and understanding dark sentences, shall stand up.

(The “things” in “the.things-apostatizing” is an indicator of plurality.)

Now, consider and examine the appropriateness of the 2nd clause in relation to “understanding dark sentences” of the 3rd clause. The king, by his skill in dark sentences will cause the fulness of apostasies. Maybe, Gnosticism which is said to have begun in the 1st century was one of the earlier apostasies but it was not what is meant as desolating apostasy in v13. The most effective way of causing a great apostasy among the Jews and Christians is by twisting the source or teachings of their faith, the Old and the New Testaments, and forcing it to them in some way or another; that would require skill in dark sayings and political/military power.

The little Horn

Some people say that this king is the Papacy but Islam is the power that we should look at since it’s the one pointed to by the actual completion of the duration of the 2300 evenings and mornings. Let’s now go back to Dan 8:9 with the knowledge that at the time of the little horn, the kingdom of Greece is just one single kingdom, not four.

Note that the word “one” has a definite article which is missing from most English translations. Now, look at the transliteration of the Hebrew form of “from.them” (m.em). The “em” is “them”. The single character ‘m’ at the first position is a prefix and it is the Hebrew letter mem; it was translated above as “from.” According to M. Wittenberg, “min” is defined as “a preposition which contracts into “mem”. Read also The Preposition Min (from Hebrew for Christians) which states that the preposition min “appearing both as an independent preposition and as an inseparable preposition.”

Now, here’s Strong’s definition of min:

H4480 מִנֵּי    מִנִּי   מִן
min    minnı̂y    minnêy
min, min-nee’, min-nay’
For H4482; properly a part of; hence (prepositionally), from or out of in many senses: – above, after, among, at, because of, by (reason of), from (among), in, X neither, X nor, (out) of, over, since, X then, through, X whether, with.

Verse 9 could be translated as thus:

(Dan 8:9)  And from the one after them came forth a little horn, which grew exceedingly great, toward the south, and toward the east, and toward the pleasant land.

Historically, it was the Roman Empire who followed the last of the four kingdoms of Greece. It was founded on 27 BC with Rome as its capital. It is said, though not clear, that ancient Greeks and Romans are racially related to each other. Even if that is true, the author believes the Roman Empire based in Rome is not the prophesied single Greek kingdom at the time of the little horn. But the Roman Empire was divided in half. A quote from Ancient History Encyclopedia:

This period, also known as The Imperial Crisis, was characterized by constant civil war, as various military leaders fought for control of the empire. The crisis has been further noted by historians for widespread social unrest, economic instability (fostered, in part, by the devaluation of Roman currency by the Severans), and, finally, the dissolution of the empire which broke into three separate regions. The empire was reunited by Aurelian (270-275 CE) whose policies were further developed and improved upon by Diocletian who established the Tetrarchy (the rule of four) to maintain order throughout the empire.

Even so, the empire was still so vast that Diocletian divided it in half in 285 CE to facilitate more efficient administration. In so doing, he created the Western Roman Empire and the Eastern Roman Empire (also known as the Byzantine Empire).

–  https://www.ancient.eu/Roman_Empire/

Byzantine Empire

A word from Wikipedia about the empire:

The Byzantine Empire, also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire and Byzantium, was the continuation of the Roman Empire in its eastern provinces during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages, when its capital city was Constantinople (modern-day Istanbul, which had been founded as Byzantium). It survived the fragmentation and fall of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century AD and continued to exist for an additional thousand years until it fell to the Ottoman Turks in 1453.[2] During most of its existence, the empire was the most powerful economic, cultural, and military force in Europe. Both “Byzantine Empire” and “Eastern Roman Empire” are historiographical terms created after the end of the realm; its citizens continued to refer to their empire as the Roman Empire (GreekΒασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίωνtr. Basileia tôn RhōmaiōnLatinImperium Romanum),[3] or Romania (Ῥωμανία), and to themselves as “Romans”.[4]

Several signal events from the 4th to 6th centuries mark the period of transition during which the Roman Empire’s Greek East and Latin West divided. Constantine I (r. 324–337) reorganised the empire, made Constantinople the new capital, and legalised Christianity. Under Theodosius I (r. 379–395), Christianity became the Empire’s official state religion and other religious practices were proscribed. Finally, under the reign of Heraclius (r. 610–641), the Empire’s military and administration were restructured and adopted Greek for official use instead of Latin.[5] Thus, although the Roman state continued and its traditions were maintained, modern historians distinguish Byzantium from ancient Rome insofar as it was centred on Constantinople, oriented towards Greek rather than Latin culture, and characterised by Orthodox Christianity.[4]  

–  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Byzantine_Empire

Who were the “Byzantines?”

According to Wikipedia, they were:

The Byzantine Greeks (or Byzantines) were the Greek or Hellenized people of the Byzantine Empire (or Eastern Roman Empire) during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages who spoke medieval Greek and were Orthodox Christians.[1] They were the main population of Byzantium, especially inhabiting the lands of ConstantinopleAsia Minor (modern Turkey), the Aegean islandsCyprus, and portions of the southern Balkans with large minorities, or pluralities, in the coastal urban centres of the Levant and northern Egypt. Throughout their history, the Byzantine Greeks self-identified as Romans (GreekῬωμαῖοιtranslit. Rhōmaîoi), but are referred to as “Byzantines” and “Byzantine Greeks” in modern historiography.

–  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Byzantine_Greeks

Another quote from Wikipedia again:

The “Byzantines” did not only refer to themselves as Rhomaioi in order to retain both their Roman citizenship and their ancient Hellenic heritage. In fact, the overwhelming majority of the “Byzantines” themselves were very conscious of their uninterrupted continuity with the ancient Greeks. Even though the ancient Greeks were not Christians, the “Byzantines” still regarded them as their ancestors.

–  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Names_of_the_Greeks#Hellenic_continuity_and_Byzantine_consciousness

So, the Byzantine Empire could possibly be the single kingdom of the Greeks at the time of the king of fierce countenance in Dan 8:23. It was during this empire’s time Islam came out and rose to power. The author thinks that the Byzantine Empire has prophetically met the requirements of Daniel 8 except for one thing – the traditional origin of Islam, Mecca, lies outside of the realm of the empire. Below is a map of Byzantine and Sassanid Empires in 600 CE from Wikipedia:

(Click the map to enlarge)

Mecca is located at the western part of the Arabian Peninsula – somewhere in the Quraysh area. It was also there, according to traditional history, where Muhammad was born. BUT there are studies being made that disprove that place of origin of Islam.

The book Sacred City of Dan Gibson was refuted by David A King in his article From Petra back to Makka – From “Pibla” back to Qibla

Dan Gibson answered it with his Response to David King with attached article

There are also people who think that Jerusalem was the original Quibla. Palmyra in Syria and the Valley of Baca (Psalm 84:6) are also among the places believe to be the first Quibla before it was change to point to Mecca in southern Arabia.

It’s up to the reader to decide. As for me, the evidences in almost every aspect shown in the video documentary are overwhelming. The discovery of Dan Gibson makes the far more realistic place of origin of Islam, Petra, WITHIN the realm of the latter time kingdom of the Greeks (as Roman citizens).

(Click the map to enlarge)

The city of Petra can be found in the right side, in the mid lower part.

(Dan 8:9)  And from the one after them came forth a little horn, which grew exceedingly great, toward the south, and toward the east, and toward the pleasant land.

From Petra, the “south” could be the entire Arabian Peninsula, the Negev, or Egypt. The “east” could be Mesopotamia and/or the lands of the Persian Empire.

The “land” after the word “pleasant” in v9 is not really there in the Hebrew manuscripts, it was added by the KJV. The third direction given in v9 “pleasant land” was omitted or rendered differently by different Old Testament manuscripts, here are some of them:

  • Syriac Old Testament: toward the south and toward the east
  • Brenton’s English Septuagint: toward the south, and toward the host
  • Arabic Old Testament: toward the south, and toward the east, and toward the pride of the lands (Google translate)
  • Apostolic Bible Polyglot: towards the south, and towards the east, and towards the setting of the sun

The author doesn’t know the correct rendering of the third direction but none of them disqualified Muhammad as the little horn.

(Dan 8:24 ESV)  His power shall be great—but not by his own power; and he shall cause fearful destruction and shall succeed in what he does, and destroy mighty men and the people who are the saints.

Mighty men of his days – the Byzantine and Persian empires!

It’s now becoming apparent that the time of the little horn or king of fierce countenance does not fit to the lifetime of Muhammad. According to tradition, he died in the year 632 AD (this is doubtful) whereas, the king is said in v25 to rise up against the Prince of princes and that will be at the latter’s coming in power and great glory.

So, the “king of fierce countenance” is a line of kings just like in the narrative of Dan 11 concerning the two lines of kings – king of the north and king of the south.

He Magnified Himself even to the Prince of the Host …

There are lot’s of articles in the Internet that show how Muhammad boasted even to the Prince of host, here is one:

50 Proofs Muhammad is the antichrist

In so many ways, Muhammad did boast or magnify himself to the Lord Yeshua!

Trodden Under Foot:

(Dan 8:13 KJV)  Then I heard one saint speaking, and another saint said unto that certain saint which spake, How long shall be the vision concerning the daily sacrifice, and the transgression of desolation, to give both the sanctuary and the host to be trodden under foot?

Historically, the peoples who trampled or caused the place of the Sanctuary to be trampled were:

  1. Greek Seleucid Empire (Antiochus IV Epiphanes)
  2. The Romans
  3. The Muslims

All the three peoples mentioned above ruled Jerusalem inside the time frame of the 2300 evenings and mornings, from 334/333 BC to 1966/1967 AD but it was at the time of the Muslims that the said time frame had consummated.

“To be trodden under foot” has a figurative meaning:

H4823 מִרְמָס
From H7429; abasement (the act or the thing): – tread (down) -ing, (to be) trodden (down) under foot.
Total KJV occurrences: 7

When Islam spread in the Middle East, including Jerusalem, Christians and Jews within the realm of the Islamic Empire were subjected to Dhimmi Laws which were said to be humiliating and degrading.


Living under these laws is like BEING STAMPED OR TRAMPLED? Here’s a quote from New World Encyclopedia:

dhimmi ([ðimi]; Arabic: ذمي, meaning “protected person”) refers to specific individuals living in Muslim lands, who were granted special status and safety in Islamic law in return for paying the capital tax. This status was originally only made available to non-Muslims who were People of the Book, namely, Jews and Christians), but was later extended to include Zoroastrians, Mandeans, and, in some areas, Hindus[1] and Buddhists.[2] The term connotes an obligation of the state to protect the individual, including the individual’s life, property, and freedom of religion and worship, and required loyalty to the empire, and a poll tax known as the jizya. Dhimmi had fewer legal and social rights than Muslims, but more rights than other non-Muslim religious subjects.[3] This status applied to millions of people living from the Atlantic Ocean to India from the seventh century until modern times.[4][5]

Conversion by a dhimmi to Islam was generally easy, and almost without exception emancipated the new convert from all legal impairments of his previous dhimmi status. Violently forced conversion was rare or unknown in early Islamic history, but increased in frequency in later centuries, such as in the Almohad dynasty of North Africa and al-Andalus.[5]

–  http://www.newworldencyclopedia.org/entry/Dhimmi

Another quote from Encyclopedia of Judaism:

Dhimmi Laws

Laws fixing the status of Jews and other religious minorities in Muslim lands. In principle, Jews and Christians were accorded the status of “protected” people (i.e. dhimmi), being recognized as People of the Book (ahl al-kitab). As such, they were permitted to practice their religion, own property, and carry on trade and were exempted from military service. In return they were obliged to acknowledge the superiority of Islam and subjected to numerous and often humiliating disabilities, including special taxes, dress codes, restrictions on riding animals, etc., the upshot of which was to relegate the Jews and other minorities to the status of second-class citizens.

–  Encyclopedia of Judaism

From the time that the Muslims had taken Jerusalem from the Byzantine Empire in 637 AD except for the times that the city was under the Crusaders, the “host” were trodden under foot until the liberation and unification of Jerusalem in June 1967. The place of the Sanctuary was literally trodden down by people who should not be there.

It should be noted that the word “Sanctuary” occurs three times in the whole chapter 8 of Daniel. One of them which has Strong’s number H4720 is in v11 while the other two which have the same number H6944 can be found in v13 and v14. It’s possible that the word “Sanctuary” in v13 and v14 means “Holy Place” which was a part of the 1st and 2nd Sanctuary. [“Holy Place” could be referring to the whole Temple Mount.] Below are the definitions of H6944:

H6944 קֹדֶשׁ
From H6942; a sacred place or thing; rarely abstractly sanctity: – consecrated (thing), dedicated (thing), hallowed (thing), holiness, (X most) holy (X day, portion, thing), saint, sanctuary.

Continual or Daily:

It is very important to note that the word “sacrifice” or “burnt-offering” after the word “daily” in v13 is not part of or included in the Hebrew manuscripts. The word “sacrifice” or “burnt-offering” was just inserted by the translators of the Old Testament, that’s why it’s italicized in the King James Version and in some other translations.

“Continual” or “daily” (v13) could mean “continual burnt offering:”

Exo 29:41-42 KJV
(41)  And the other lamb thou shalt offer at even, and shalt do thereto according to the meat offering of the morning, and according to the drink offering thereof, for a sweet savour, an offering made by fire unto the LORD.
(42)  This shall be a continual(H8548) burnt offering throughout your generations at the door of the tabernacle of the congregation before the LORD: where I will meet you, to speak there unto thee.

It could also mean “continual incense:”

Exo 30:7-8 KJV
(7)  And Aaron shall burn thereon sweet incense every morning: when he dresseth the lamps, he shall burn incense upon it.
(8)  And when Aaron lighteth the lamps at even, he shall burn incense upon it, a perpetual (H8548) incense before the LORD throughout your generations.

As continual incense, it could also be a continual, perpetual, or daily prayer:

(Psa 141:2 KJV)  Let my prayer be set forth before thee as incense; and the lifting up of my hands as the evening sacrifice.

Luk 1:9-10 KJV
(9)  According to the custom of the priest’s office, his lot was to burn incense when he went into the temple of the Lord.
(10)  And the whole multitude of the people were praying without at the time of incense.

A quote from Adam Clark’s Commentary:

Luke 1:10

The whole multitude – were praying – The incense was itself an emblem of the prayers and praises of the people of God: see Psa_141:2; Rev_8:1. While, therefore, the rite is performing by the priest, the people are employed in the thing signified. Happy the people who attend to the spirit as well as the letter of every divine institution! Incense was burnt twice a day in the temple, in the morning and in the evening, Exo_30:7, Exo_30:8; but the evangelist does not specify the time of the day in which this transaction took place. It was probably in the morning.

–  Adam Clark

Note: Rev 8:1 should be Rev 8:3-4 maybe.

Desolating Apostasy

(Dan 8:13 KJV+)  Then I heardH8085 oneH259 saintH6918 speaking,H1696 and anotherH259 saintH6918 saidH559 unto that certainH6422 saint which spake,H1696 How longH5704 H4970 shall be the visionH2377 concerning the dailyH8548 sacrifice, and the transgressionH6588 of desolation,H8074 to giveH5414 both the sanctuaryH6944 and the hostH6635 to be trodden under foot?H4823

What is transgression of desolation? The Hebrew word for “transgression” has its definition below

H6588 פֶּשַׁע
From H6586; a revolt (national, moral or religious): – rebellion, sin, transgression, trespassive

The word came from H6586

H6586 פָּשַׁע
A primitive root (rather identical with H6585 through the idea of expansion); to break away (from just authority), that is, trespass, apostatize, quarrel: – offend, rebel, revolt, transgress (-ion, -or).

Remember H6586? It is the word used in v23

(Dan 8:23) And in the latter time of their kingdom, as.to-come to the full-of the.things-apostatizing, a king of fierce countenance, and understanding dark sentences, shall stand up.

Additionally, according to Syriac Electronic Data Retrieval Archive (SEDRA), the definition of the Aramaic word for “falling away” in 2Thess 2:3 is “rebellion, apostasy.” So, Dan 8:13 could be rendered as:

(Dan 8:13)  Then I heard one saint speaking, and another saint said unto that certain saint which spake, How long shall be the vision concerning the daily, and the desolating apostasy, to give both the sanctuary and the host to be trodden under foot?

The greatest falling away or apostasy that had occurred in the history of Christianity, so far, was at the time of the rise and spread of Islam in the “world.”  Before Islam came out in the early 7th century AD, Christianity had already spread in the known world and it had become the dominant religion. Here’s a timeline map of the spread of Christianity from Wikipedia:

Then Islam supplanted Christianity in “all the world.” Here’s the timeline map of the spread of Islam:

Age of the Caliphs

  Expansion under Muhammad, 622–632/A.H. 1-11
  Expansion during the Rashidun Caliphate, 632–661/A.H. 11-40
  Expansion during the Umayyad Caliphate, 661–750/A.H. 40-129

Apostasy through Dark Sayings

Muhammad is regarded by Muslims as the greatest of all the prophets. The link below discusses how he is prophesied in the Bible by Dr. Zakir Naik:


Refuting Zakir Naik on Muhammad in the Bible:

Muhammad used the Bible to apostatize people. Also, he claimed that “revelations” from Allah came to him through the angel Gabriel. A quote from Wikipedia:

According to the traditional narrative, several companions of Muhammad served as scribes and were responsible for writing down the revelations.[13]Shortly after Muhammad’s death, the Quran was compiled by his companions who wrote down and memorized parts of it.[14]

–  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Quran

If one will read the Quran, that person will find that it has many things in common with the Bible. Dark sentences or parables can also be found in the Quran but they are not from the God of the Bible or from his son, the Lord Yeshua, because too many contradictions exist between the two books. It is obvious that the author of the Quran is skilled in dark sayings. Now, watch the video below to know the origins of the Quran:


Written article about plagiarism in the Quran:

Sources of the Quran


The great apostasy caused by Muhammad and the line of kings that followed him has brought about the setting up of the abomination that desolates in the Holy Place (late 7th century AD), the Dome of the Rock. Several other Muslim structures were built in the Temple Mount since then.

Below is a link to a historical account of the Temple Mount beginning from the time of the Roman Empire.

Did Jews Abandon the Temple Mount?

Even if the status quo of the Temple Mount at the time of this writing is seemingly not moving in the direction of “and the Sanctuary (or Holy Place) shall be restored or cleansed” (Dan 8:14), the sovereignty of the Temple Mount is already in the hands of the Jews. Also, the trampling on (implementation of the humiliating Dhimmi Laws) of the “host,” had already stopped, at least in Jerusalem.

For further information concerning the king of fierce countenance visit:

The Self Magnified King and the (Strange) God of Fortresses

Trampling for 42 months at the time of the 7th head of the Beast?

It’s time to tackle the two verses below.

(Rev 13:5 KJV)  And there was given unto him a mouth speaking great things and blasphemies; and power was given unto him to continue forty and two months.

(Rev 11:2 KJV)  But the court which is without the temple leave out, and measure it not; for it is given unto the Gentiles: and the holy city shall they tread under foot forty and two months.

Let’s first discuss Revelation 13:5

The Aramaic word for “continue” has its definition below:

(bd verb G
ˁbd vb. a/e to make, act, do
to make Com–(a) to create Syr(a.1) to write Syr–(b) (often w. ˁl, l_) : to transfer ownership OfA-Egypt, OfA-Pers(b.1) to designate, make into JLAtg, Gal–(c) to prepare Syr(c.1) to re-make, repair Syr–(d) to provide, produce Gal, PTA, Syr, JBA(d.1) to amount to, to be equal to Galto be suitable Syr(d.2) to work a field, plant JBA–(e) p.p. : prepared JBA(e.1) w. inf. or relative clause : likely to, apt to JBA(e.2) דעביד  followed by a noun : in the condition of  JBA(e.3) see also s.v. ˁbyd, ˁbydh .
to do, perform, act in a certain manner Com–(a) to pass (time) in a certain way Gal, Syr, Man–(b) to work JBA(b.1) to perform religious service Syr, JBA(b.2) to perform a magical practice Gal, Syr, JBAmb–(c) to fare, prosper Gal(c.1) p.p. id. Gal(c.2) p.p. to suffer Syr+ܒܣܝܡܐܝܬ‏ : to eat in moderation (?)‏ Syr.
to put in charge Jud, Syr.
idiomatic expressions: . –(a) ܐܲܦܸ̈ܐ‏ : to give priority or opportunity‏ Syr–(b) ܦܲܪܨܘܿܦܸܗ‏ : to act in someone’s place‏ Syr–(c) w. qrb, etc.: to make war, battle OfA-Pers, BA-Ez, BA-Da–(d) w. reflexive pron. : to pretend, simulate Gal, Syr–(e) ܚܸܘܵܪܵܐ‏ : to become grey‏ Syr–(f) ܚܘܼܒܿܵܐ‏ : to make friends‏ Syr–(g) ܡܸܠܬܵܐ‏ : to speak‏ Syr–(h) ܦܝܣܐ‏ to persuade‏ Syr–(i) ܥܘܼܗܕܵܢܵܐ‏ : to commemorate‏ Syr–(j) פרנסה  : to make a collection for support  Jud–(k) סִתוָא  : to spend the winter  JLAtg.
to ordain Syr–(a) to determine the law Gal.
to force Syr–(a) (gram.) to govern Syr.

In some of its instances, this verb is used with a noun such as “to make war” like in v4 and v7 of the current chapter and book we are into but in v5, the verb has no direct object. It should be understood in the context of the verse or passage it belongs to. Now, isn’t the particular verb “to do” or “to make” referring to the previous part of the verse?

“there was given unto him a mouth speaking great things and blasphemies”

This is confirmed by the very 1st clause of the very next verse:

(Rev 13:6 KJV)  And he opened his mouth in blasphemy against God, to blaspheme his name, and his tabernacle, and them that dwell in heaven.

Rev 13:5 could be rendered as:

And there was given unto him a mouth speaking great things and blasphemies; and power was given unto him to do so for forty and two months.

It is NOT for the “giving of the Holy People” the beast (or mouth) was given authority for 42 months – it is for the speaking of great things and blasphemies! In v7 of Rev 13, it can be read:

(Rev 13:7 KJV)  And it was given unto him to make war with the saints, and to overcome them: and power was given him over all kindreds, and tongues, and nations.

The beast is AGAIN given power or authority and this time it is to be “over all kindreds, and tongues, and nations” in which the Holy People are included but it will be only after it had made war with and overcome the saints. This is the time duration the “time, times and half of a time” in Dan 7:25 is telling:

(Dan 7:25 KJV)  And he shall speak great words against the most High, and shall wear out the saints of the most High, and think to change times and laws: and they shall be given into his hand until a time and times and the dividing of time.

The time of the “speaking of blasphemies” does not equate with the time the Holy People will be under the authority of the beast or mouth.

– The “speaking” has 42 months.
– The “giving over” has “time, times and half of a time”

It cannot be denied that there is a disparity between these two time frames because of the war but it can be said that a part of the time frame of “speaking” overlaps with a part or whole of the time frame of “giving over.” It is very probable that they will end at the same time and the only possible reason that can be seen now is because of the coming of the wrath of God – the time that the court will sit in Judgment (Dan 7:26), the time that the winepress of the wrath of God will be trodden (Rev 14:20), and the time of the Two Myriads of Myriads Horsemen to inflict the three first plagues (Rev 9:13-21). The “time, times and half of a time” in Dan 7:25 is not equal with the 42 months in Rev 13:5, the former is shorter than the latter. Well, this is not easy to accept as true but it can be proven that they are really not equal in duration. Read the article: TIME, TIMES, AND A HALF (3 1/2 or 2 1/2 Times?). The trampling of Jerusalem for 42 months cannot happen inside the “time of times and half of a time.”

What about the verse below?

(Rev 11:7 KJV)  And when they shall have finished their testimony, the beast that ascendeth out of the bottomless pit shall make war against them, and shall overcome them, and kill them.

This verse which is about the Two Witnesses and the Beast seems to confuse our understanding of sequence of events in Revelation. Let’s examine it. In the Peshitta, the word “ascendeth” is also in its present tensethe “bottomless pit” is “sea.” (See the Analysis Page of Rev 11:7) Does the verse tell the beast is ascending only at that point in time? What is obvious is: the beast will make war against the two witnesses. The “ascending” can mean another thing: At that time, the beast is ascending, that is, it is traveling from the symbolic “sea” where it is symbolically residing and it is going to the place where the two witnesses are (symbolic “heaven”) to make war against them. – to Armageddon?

Rev 16:14-16 KJV
(14)  For they are the spirits of devils, working miracles, which go forth unto the kings of the earth and of the whole world, to gather them to the battle of that great day of God Almighty.
(15)  Behold, I come as a thief. Blessed is he that watcheth, and keepeth his garments, lest he walk naked, and they see his shame.
(16)  And he gathered them together into a place called in the Hebrew tongue Armageddon.

As was said earlier, the trampling of Jerusalem for 42 months cannot happen during this time because it clearly occurs BEFORE the time of the two witnesses according to chapter 11 of Revelation.

Let’s now discuss Revelation 11:2

Rev 11:1-2 KJV
(1)  And there was given me a reed like unto a rod: and the angel stood, saying, Rise, and measure the temple of God, and the altar, and them that worship therein.
(2)  But the court which is without the temple leave out, and measure it not; for it is given unto the Gentiles: and the holy city shall they tread under foot forty and two months.

Aren’t these verses belong to John’s vantage point in time? Let’s try to understand it.

The 6th Trumpet contains the visions of:

  • The Two Myriads of Myriads Horsemen
  • The Mighty Angel with a Little Scroll
  • The Two Witnesses

If we will study the time settings of this Trumpet, it will naturally come to our minds that what John had just seen and heard in the vision of The Two Myriads of Myriads Horsemen is future from his time. In the first three verses of the next vision, The Mighty Angel with a Little Scroll, John continues to narrate what he had just seen and heard which are future then as well. Then in v4, he states that a voice from heaven prevented him from writing what the Seven Thunders had uttered. At that moment, at that part of the 6th Trumpet, the vantage point in time is at John’s time – the time when he was seeing and writing the vision of the 6th Trumpet. In v5-v7, the perspective of time goes back in the future of John – the time of the swearing of the Mighty Angel. After that, the perspective of time once again returns to that of John and remained there up to the mid-part of the next vision – The Two Witnesses. Then, from the 11th verse up to the last verse of that chapter (11), the perspective of time is again owned by the 6th Trumpet.

The passages of the 6th Trumpet that belong to John’s vantage point are:

– Verse 4 of chapter 10

  • Verse 8 of the same chapter (10) up to verse 10 of the next chapter (11)

Although it is viewed from John’s perspective of time, the account of the Two Witnesses (Rev 11:3–10) is the only part of what was told to him that we can be sure will occur at the actual time of the 6th Trumpet because from v11 of chapter 11, he was back in seeing the last part of the 6th Trumpet which was the continuation of what’s has been told to him about the Two Witnesses and that last part clearly belongs to the vantage point of the 6th Trumpet.

How about the trampling of the Holy City in v2?

As can be seen from Rev 11:1-2, the “trampling” is (just) an expounding of the phrase “for it was given to the nations” which in turn is (just) a reason why John should not measure the outside court of the temple. Moreover, the passage belongs to John’s vantage point of time and that could make a difference with respect to the time of occurrence of the “treading on.” It can be stated that unlike with the account of the two witnesses (v3-v10), the “trampling of the Holy City” doesn’t have the sureness that it really happens inside the time frame of the 6th Trumpet. Isn’t it more likely that the “trampling for forty two months” in v2 the “trampling” mentioned in Luke 21:24 which occurred nearer to John’s time and to the destruction of the Temple in 70 AD?

(Luk 21:24 KJV)  And they shall fall by the edge of the sword, and shall be led away captive into all nations: and Jerusalem shall be trodden down of the Gentiles, until the times of the Gentiles be fulfilled.

Not a few students of the Bible say that the “treading on” in the verse above was fulfilled by the Romans. Even if what the Romans did to Jerusalem in 70 AD can be called “treading under foot,” it was not for forty two months. As for me, it was the Muslims who did fulfill the trampling of Jerusalem which started AFTER most of the Jews were led away captive into all nations. A quote from Wikipedia:

The Siege of Jerusalem was part of a military conflict which took place in the year 637 between the Byzantine Empire and the Rashidun Caliphate. It began when the Rashidun army, under the command of Abu Ubaidah, besieged Jerusalem in November 636. After six months, the Patriarch Sophronius agreed to surrender, on condition that he submit only to the Caliph. In April 637, Caliph Umar traveled to Jerusalem in person to receive the submission of the city. The Patriarch thus surrendered to him.

–  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Siege_of_Jerusalem_(636%E2%80%93637)

Historically, Jerusalem was conquered by the Muslims in 637 AD and from that time up to the Six Day War in 1967, except for the years 1099 AD to 1187 AD, they controlled the city or part of the city. The years 1099 AD to 1187 AD were the years Jerusalem was under the Crusaders. It was the result of the 1st Crusade and it was the only time that Jerusalem was totally controlled by Christian Crusaders.


In the Aramaic Peshitta, the word for “months” in Rev 11:2 has a state of “emphatic.” (See Analysis Page of Rev 11:2) Thus, it would be declined as “the months.” The 42 months are 42 definite months. Let’s map in our minds the landmark prophetic months from year 637 AD up to 1967 AD with the consideration of the time of the Crusaders. Note: God’s calendar starts at spring months.

The 1st month would be from 637 AD to 667 AD. The 2nd month would be from 667 AD to 697 AD.

The timeline map at the time of the Crusaders:

The 16th month was from 1087 AD to 1117 AD. It was on this month Jerusalem was taken by the Christian Crusaders (1099 AD). Only a littler over 12 years of this particular prophetic month Jerusalem was under the Muslims, but it can be stated that the Muslims did trample the city on that particular prophetic month. 12 of 30 years is not insignificant.

The years that started in the spring of 1117 AD up to the last day of the last literal month of the year of God’s calendar that falls on 1187 AD should be skipped for the reason that no trodding down had occurred.

The 17th month was from 1187 AD to 1217 AD. In 1187 AD, Jerusalem was taken back by the Muslims under Saladin. The count resumed at this particular prophetic month.

Let’s go at the end of the timeline map:

The 42nd month which is the last would be from March 13, 1937 up to April 10, 1967 AD.

In June 5, 1967, the Six Day War begun. After the war, Jerusalem was liberated and reunited and the treading under foot of the city had stopped.

Some may wonder if it is Biblically allowed to have a gap within a prophesied time period like the 42 month period. The author does not know if it is so or not but read the following verse:

(Luk 21:24 KJV)  And they shall fall by the edge of the sword, and shall be led away captive into all nations: and Jerusalem shall be trodden down of the Gentiles, until the times of the Gentiles be fulfilled.

The word “times” is in the plural form. The same is true in the Aramaic Peshitta, here’s the Analysis Page of Luke 21:24.

Let’s worship the Name of the Almighty God and of the Lord Yeshua who see to it that what is written is what will happen!


NOTICE: This article is NOT copyrighted.  Anyone may copy it in whole or in part and/or distribute it. Permission is not required. It may also expand or change in form in the future. It is still a work in progress. If anything is found to be in error then it will be corrected or deleted without prior notice.


2300 Evenings and Mornings New: The Self Magnified King and the (Strange) God of Fortresses
The Great Tribulation (GT) The Aftermath of The Great Tribulation (GT)

The Olivet Prophecy: Arrow of the Lord

Part 1: Looking Through the Stones of the Buildings of the Temple
Part 2: False Messiahs (1st SEWIC)
Part 3: Fearful Things and Terrors (2nd SEWIC)
Part 4: Persecutions and Martyrdoms (3rd SEWIC)
Part 5: The Desolation and the Great Distress According to Luke
Part 6: The Great Tribulation (GT)
Part 7: The Coming of the Lord (LAST-SEWIC)
Part 8: The Illustration of the Fig Tree

Revelation And Its Mysteries
Updated: Time, Times And A Half (3 ½ or 2 ½ Times?) Daniel’s 1290 and 1335 Days
The Man and His Number (Tav Resh Samech Vav) Revelation 12

The Red Dragon, Composite Beast, and Scarlet Beast of Revelation

The 4 Living Creatures And The 24 Elders



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