NOTE: Please bear with the poor English of the author and be it known that this article may expand or change in form in the future.
Dan 11:36-40 ESV
(36) “And the king shall do as he wills. He shall exalt himself and magnify himself above every god, and shall speak astonishing things against the God of gods. He shall prosper till the indignation is accomplished; for what is decreed shall be done.
(37) He shall pay no attention to the gods of his fathers, or to the one beloved by women. He shall not pay attention to any other god, for he shall magnify himself above all.
(38) He shall honor the god of fortresses instead of these. A god whom his fathers did not know he shall honor with gold and silver, with precious stones and costly gifts.
(39) He shall deal with the strongest fortresses with the help of a foreign god. Those who acknowledge him he shall load with honor. He shall make them rulers over many and shall divide the land for a price.
(40) “At the time of the end, the king of the south shall attack him, but the king of the north shall rush upon him like a whirlwind, with chariots and horsemen, and with many ships. And he shall come into countries and shall overflow and pass through.
Verse 40 is suggesting that verses 36 to 39 occurs or starts to occur before the time of the end. (But the indignation in v36 shall continue even to the time of the end.) If the reader has already read the article – 2300 Evenings and Mornings – he knows that the “king” from v36 to v39 is Muhammad and the line of kings that followed him. (Actually two lines; the beast in Rev 13:11 which spake like a dragon has two horns like a lamb – Sunni and shiite.)
How Muhammad disregarded the gods of his fathers (v37):
It was over 4000 years later that the last of the line of Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) entered Makkah triumphantly, went inside the Kaaba and, with the help of his cousin and son in law, Ali Ibn Abu Talib and destroyed all the idols of Kaaba with their own hands. At one stage of this destruction of idols, the tallest of the idol, Hubbol, was brought down after Ali had to stand on the shoulders of the Prophet to carry out God’s orders. The Prophet of Islam was reciting the verse from the Qur’an: “Truth hath come and falsehood hath vanished.” (17:81) This was done in the 8th year of Hijra, January 630 AD after the bloodless victory at Makkah by the Prophet of Islam.
How He paid no attention to the one beloved by women (v37):
The word “beloved” in the English Standard Version (above) is rendered as “desire” or “desired” by other Bible translations. The clause has nothing to do with sexual desire because “true God” and “false gods,” to whom the king magnified himself above, are clearly the main topic of the passage v36 to v37. The “one” beloved by women is understood to be a god too, who is this god? Students of the Bible are divided over this matter. Some of them say this deity is Tammuz, the Mesopotamian god. Others believe it to be the Lord Yeshua since Jewish women are said to be desirous of becoming the Mother of the Messiah.
Could Tammuz be the beloved or one desired of women in v37?
The question above could be answered affirmatively or negatively by another question: Is there a sufficient significance in Tammuz being taken out of “any other god” in the 3rd clause and presented solely in the 2nd clause? In my understanding, there is none. He is just another false god even if he is mentioned in Eze 8:14. He belongs to “any other god” in the 3rd clause.
How about the Lord Yeshua as the beloved or one desired of women in v37?
The Messiah who is beloved by women could very well be the one pointed to by the 2nd clause. In this case, one can expect that something significant is waiting to be discovered.
The phrase “beloved by women” in relation to the context of v37 seems to be implying that we should look at the difference between the Jesus Christ of the Bible and the Jesus Christ (Isa al-Masih) of the Quran. From the Bible, we Christians already know things concerning our Saviour; what many of us don’t know is the Jesus or Isa of the Quran. The Isa of the Quran differs significantly from the Jesus of the BIble, here are just three samples:
- Jesus is the Son of God while Isa is the son of Mary but not the son of the Islamic God Allah who has no sons or daughters.
- Jesus is the Word who was with God, and that Word was God (John 1:1). Isa is a mere human, created from dust.
- Jesus was crucified and died of the Cross; he is the savior of every individual that sinned (all of us). Isa didn’t die on the cross but someone was killed in his stead; he did not atone for the sins of the people.
There are many other differences between them, the reader is recommended to visit the link below:
The Jesus Christ of the Bible was/is beloved by his followers and believers, men and women alike. Why was Jesus beloved by women?
According to New Testament scholar Dr. Frank Stagg and classicist Evelyn Stagg, the synoptic Gospels of the canonical New Testament contain a relatively high number of references to women. Evangelical Bible scholar Gilbert Bilezikian agrees, especially by comparison with literary works of the same epoch.:p.82 Neither the Staggs nor Bilezikian find any recorded instance where Jesus disgraces, belittles, reproaches, or stereotypes a woman. These writers claim that examples of the manner of Jesus are instructive for inferring his attitudes toward women and show repeatedly how he liberated and affirmed women.Starr writes that of all founders of religions and religious sects, Jesus stands alone as the one who did not discriminate in some way against women. By word or deed he never encouraged the disparagement of a woman. Karen King concludes, based on the account of Jesus’ interaction with a Syrophoenician woman in Mark 7:24-30 and Matthew 15:21-28, that “an unnamed Gentile woman taught Jesus that the ministry of God is not limited to particular groups and persons, but belongs to all who have faith.”
The gospels of the New Testament, written toward the last quarter of the first century AD, often mention Jesus speaking to women publicly and openly against the social norms of the time. From the beginning, Jewish women disciples, including Mary Magdalene, Joanna, and Susanna, had accompanied Jesus during his ministry and supported him out of their private means.[Lk. 8:1-3] ”
The Isa of the Quran was/is beloved by male Muslims but not so beloved by female Muslims as compared to the love given to the Jesus of the Bible by his female followers. Why is this so? To know the reason, one must look at the life and teachings of Muhammad as compared to that of Jesus Christ of the Bible. The link below provides us with the pertinent information:
Their views differ strikingly from each other. Now, how about the Isa of the Quran, would his view be similar to that of Muhammad? Yes, of course, because he is not a prophet in the Bible but in the Quran, in which, Muhammad is the final prophet.
Another reason was/is because of Sharia Law which takes away the rights of women. This law is oppressive to female Muslims. Read a quote from Wikipedia on Sharia and Women:
Many claim sharia law encourages domestic violence against women, when a husband suspects nushuz (disobedience, disloyalty, rebellion, ill conduct) in his wife. Other scholars claim wife beating, for nashizah, is not consistent with modern perspectives of the Quran.
One of the verses of the Quran relating to permissibility of domestic violence is Surah 4:34. Sharia has been criticized for ignoring women’s rights in domestic abuse cases. Musawah, CEDAW, KAFA and other organizations have proposed ways to modify sharia-inspired laws to improve women’s rights in Muslim-majority nations, including women’s rights in domestic abuse cases.
Personal status laws and child marriage
Shari’a is the basis for personal status laws in most Islamic-majority nations. These personal status laws determine rights of women in matters of marriage, divorce and child custody. A 2011 UNICEF report concludes that sharia law provisions are discriminatory against women from a human rights perspective. In legal proceedings under sharia law, a woman’s testimony is worth half of a man’s before a court.
Except for Iran, Lebanon and Bahrain which allow child marriages, the civil codes in Islamic majority countries do not allow child marriage of girls. However, with sharia personal status laws, sharia courts in all these nations have the power to override the civil code. The religious courts permit girls less than 18 years old to marry. As of 2011, child marriages are common in a few Middle Eastern countries, accounting for 1 in 6 of all marriages in Egypt and 1 in 3 marriages in Yemen. UNICEF and other studies state that the top five nations in the world with highest observed child marriage rates – Niger (75%), Chad (72%), Mali (71%), Bangladesh (64%), Guinea (63%) – are Islamic-majority countries where the personal laws for Muslims are sharia-based. In his Cairo speech, President Obama spoke out against child marriage.
Rape is considered a crime in all countries, but sharia courts in Bahrain, Iraq, Jordan, Libya, Morocco, Syria and Tunisia in some cases allow a rapist to escape punishment by marrying his victim, while in other cases the victim who complains is often prosecuted with the crime of Zina (adultery).
Women’s right to property and consent
Sharia grants women the right to inherit property from other family members, and these rights are detailed in the Quran. A woman’s inheritance is unequal and less than a man’s, and dependent on many factors.[Quran 4:12] For instance, a daughter’s inheritance is usually half that of her brother’s.[Quran 4:11]
Until the 20th century, Islamic law granted Muslim women certain legal rights, such as the right to own property received as Mahr(brideprice) at her marriage. However, Islamic law does not grant non-Muslim women the same legal rights as the few it did grant Muslim women. Sharia recognizes the basic inequality between master and women slave, between free women and slave women, between Believers and non-Believers, as well as their unequal rights. Sharia authorized the institution of slavery, using the words abd (slave) and the phrase ma malakat aymanukum (“that which your right hand owns”) to refer to women slaves, seized as captives of war. Under Islamic law, Muslim men could have sexual relations with female captives and slaves.
Slave women under sharia did not have a right to own property or to move freely. Sharia, in Islam’s history, provided a religious foundation for enslaving non-Muslim women (and men), but allowed for the manumission of slaves. However, manumission required that the non-Muslim slave first convert to Islam. A non-Muslim slave woman who bore children to her Muslim master became legally free upon her master’s death, and her children were presumed to be Muslims like their father, in Africa and elsewhere.
Starting with the 20th century, Western legal systems evolved to expand women’s rights, but women’s rights under Islamic law have remained tied to the Quran, hadiths and their fundamentalist interpretation as sharia by Islamic jurists.
Another article about Sharia and Women:
Now, according to http://www.sunna.info/Lessons/islam_421.html, Isa will rule the earth with the Shari^ah
Isa received a Heavenly Book, the Injil, which contained the Shari^ah, (rules of the Religion) revealed to him. In it was the prohibition of associating partners with Allah. In it was the prohibition to consume the usurious gain (riba), pig meat, blood, and the meat of animals not slaughtered properly. It contained the order to perform the Prayer (with bowing and prostration) twice a day. It had the order to fast (but other than the month of Ramadan), and the order to perform taharah. Prophet ^Isa came with a Shari^ah that contained making permissible some of the things which had been forbidden upon the children of Israel in the Torah. Although what is called “The Bible” today contains some true stories of Prophet ^Isa, it does not contain the true Injil which was revealed to him.
After he descends, Prophet ^Isa will rule the earth with the Shari^ah of Prophet Muhammad, the Shari^ah Muslims are ordered to follow until the Judgment Day. He will break the cross, kill the pig, and abolish the jizyah (compulsory payment by the People of the Book to the Muslim state), because in the rules of Prophet Muhammad the jizyah is only applicable until the descent of ^Isa. He will kill the Dajjal, an ugly, evil blasphemer who claims himself as God, and who misleads many people to blaspheme. Prophet ^Isa will perform Hajj and travel to visit the grave of the Prophet to salute him, and to greet him by saying, “As-salamu ^alaykum ya rasul Allah”, as narrated by Abu Dawud at-Tayalisiyy and others.
If the Lord Jesus of the Bible was like the Isa of the Quran, would he be beloved by his female disciples during his ministry? …by female Christians after he ascended to heaven? That would be a big NO.
Now, can the reader see how Muhammad disregarded the God and Savior beloved by women while at the same time preaching another Jesus who is just a mere man and whom many Muslims regarded as inferior to Muhammad. The anti-christ was skilled in dark sayings.
But in his place shall he honor the god of fortresses (v38a)
Below is a quote from a Muslim website about their God:
Muslims often refer to God as Allah. This is a universal name for God and does not refer to an exclusively ‘Islamic’ God. Interestingly, this name is related to the Aramaic and Hebrew names for God, Allaha and Elohim. Therefore, Allah is simply the Arabic name for God which affirms that He is One singular God with no partners or equals. The name Allah cannot be pluralized or limited to a specific gender, which establishes that God is One and that He is unique from everything He creates. Muslims continue to use this original Arabic name for God (Allah) since it perfectly expresses His unique qualities.
God is the Creator and the Sustainer of the universe who created everything for a reason. Muslims believe that He created humankind with a simple purpose – to worship Him. He sent messengers to guide people in fulfilling this purpose. Some of these messengers include Adam, Noah, Abraham, Moses, Jesus, and Muhammad, peace be upon all of them. They all taught a consistent message about God by affirming His greatness as the Creator and guiding people to worship Him alone. This basic concept has always resonated with people’s natural understanding of God. (Click here to learn more about prophets in Islam.)
When the final prophet, Muhammad, peace be upon him (pbuh), was asked about God, the answer came directly from God in the holy book of Muslims, the Quran (also spelled ‘Koran’): “Say, ‘He is God the One, God the eternal. He begot no one nor was He begotten. No one is comparable to Him.’” [112:1-4] This is a clear statement by God describing Himself to humanity without any room for confusion. God is One and is exalted above everything He creates and He is capable over all things.
Muslims consider their God Allah as the same God of the Bible – the God of the Jews and of the Christians. But obviously, Allah is not the God of the Bible according to the 3rd paragraph of the quote which says: He begot no one nor was He begotten. The God of the Bible begot the Lord Yeshua.
There are many articles about the differences between the God Yahweh (YHWH) and Allah that can be found in the Internet; just google it.
Let’s now study Dan 11:38:
(Dan 11:38 ASV) But in his place shall he honor the god of fortresses; and a god whom his fathers knew not shall he honor with gold, and silver, and with precious stones, and pleasant things.
(The his in the phrase in his place is singular in the Hebrew manuscripts.) If the phrase in his place in the verse be treated as expressing a location, there’s no contextual significance that can be seen. But if it be treated as in his stead, it would seem that it is presenting something – the stark contrast between the attributes of the God beloved by women and the God of fortresses which can’t be readily seen because of the seemingly not so appropriate rendering of the Hebrew word “fortresses” in the ASV and “forces” in the KJV. Let’s examine the word:
H4581 מָעֻז מָעֹז מָעוּז מָעוֹז
mâ‛ôz mâ‛ûz mâ‛ôz mâ‛ûz
maw-oze’, maw-ooz’, maw-oze’, maw-ooz’
From H5810; a fortified place; figuratively a defence: – force, fort (-ress), rock, strength (-en), (X most) strong (hold).
The Hebrew noun H4581 came from the Hebrew verb:
A primitive root; to be stout (literally or figuratively): – harden, impudent, prevail, strengthen (self), be strong.
The rendering the God of impudent ones (v38) could show the contrast with the God beloved by Women (v37) more conspicuously, at least, in the passage v37-v38.
The God of the Bible is not the God of the Quran. The Lord Yeshua and his Father are one. – HOW ARE GOD THE FATHER AND YESHUA ONE?
The god of the 2nd clause of v38 is the same god of fortresses or impudent ones in the 1st clause. In the Hebrew Bible, the conjunction “and” at the start of the 2nd clause is not a standalone word. It is the letter waw or vav in the Semitic alphabet and it is prefixed to the word “god” which has another letter also prefixed to it. The complete Hebrew word could be read in English as thus: and.to.god whom his fathers… This waw prefix which act as a particle conjunction can mean and, but, then, now, etc. and it is said that it has more meanings. In the Old Testament, both in the Hebrew and Aramaic parts of it, the said prefix is usually treated as a consecutive conjunction and that is why in this function it is called the “consecutive waw.” But there are verses in the Old Testament where it serves as an explanatory conjunction. It is attached to a word or 1st word of a clause that tells something about the immediate preceding word or phrase in a more detailed or precise manner. This is called the “waw explicativum” or “explicative waw.” In this sense, this prefix is said to be like the English “that is.” See D. W. Baker, “Further Examples of the Waw Explicativum,” VT 30.2 (1980) or click the links below (needs registration for free full online reading):
So, Dan 11:38 could be rendered as:
But/And in his place, to god of impudent ones shall he honor; that_is.to.god whom his fathers knew not shall he honor with gold, and silver, and with precious stones, and pleasant things.
That god is the Allah of Islam whom Muhammad’s fathers knew not. But a few people say that Allah was the moon god in pre-Islamic Arabic mythology. If true, that would had made Allah known by Muhammad’s fathers. This claim is refuted by historians and Bible scholars, read what Rick Brown, a Bible scholar and mission strategist says:
Those who claim that Allah is a pagan deity, most notably the moon god, often base their claims on the fact that a symbol of the crescent moon adorns the tops of many mosques and is widely used as a symbol of Islam. It is in fact true that before the coming of Islam many “gods” and idols were worshipped in the Middle East, but the name of the moon god was Sîn, not Allah, and he was not particularly popular in Arabia, the birthplace of Islam. The most prominent idol in Mecca was a god called Hubal, and there is no proof that he was a moon god. It is sometimes claimed that there is a temple to the moon god at Hazor in Palestine. This is based on a representation there of a supplicant wearing a crescent-like pendant. It is not clear, however, that the pendant symbolizes a moon god, and in any case this is not an Arab religious site but an ancient Canaanite site, which was destroyed by Joshua in about 1250 BC. … If the ancient Arabs worshipped hundreds of idols, then no doubt the moon god Sîn was included, for even the Hebrews were prone to worship the sun and the moon and the stars, but there is no clear evidence that moon-worship was prominent among the Arabs in any way or that the crescent was used as the symbol of a moon god, and Allah was certainly not the moon god’s name.
Reading the whole Wikipedia article is recommended.
And he shall deal with the strongest fortresses by the help of a strange god (v39a):
(Dan 11:39 KJV) Thus shall he do in the most strong holds with a strange god, whom he shall acknowledge and increase with glory: and he shall cause them to rule over many, and shall divide the land for gain.
Verse 39 of Daniel 11 is rendered in many ways by various English Bible translators. Their differences will confuse anyone, even a learned Bible student. But we already know who the king of v36-v39 was – Muhammad and the line of kings that followed him. What we must do is to study what Muhammad taught and the early history of Islamic conquests.
The Strange or Foreign God
It was mentioned previously that Muslims consider their God Allah as the same God of the Bible – the God of the Jews and of the Christians but there are so many proofs that say otherwise. Now, here’s a surprise from v39, the Hebrew word for strange/foreign has its definition below:
From H5234; foreign, or (concretely) a foreigner, or (abstractly) heathendom: – alien, strange (+ -er).
The word came from:
A primitive root; properly to scrutinize, that is, look intently at; hence (with recognition implied), to acknowledge, be acquainted with, care for, respect, revere, or (with suspicion implied), to disregard, ignore, be strange toward, reject, resign, dissimulate (as if ignorant or disowning): – acknowledge, X could, deliver, discern, dissemble, estrange, feign self to be another, know, take knowledge (notice), perceive, regard, (have) respect, behave (make) self strange (-ly).
One of the meanings given by Brown-Driver-Briggs’ Hebrew Dictionary of the same word H5234 is:
2c2) to disguise oneself
The Allah of Islam factually befits the God of v39, if translated as a god of disguise.
…whosoever acknowledgeth him he will increase with glory; and he shall cause them to rule over many, and shall divide the land for a price. – (Dan 11:39b ASV)
The 2nd part of v39 could be telling of riches which the king will bestow. Knowledge concerning acts of bribery commited by Muhammad is essential in understanding the whole of v39.
Bribing People to Become Muslims:
Narrated Anas: The Prophet said, “I give to Quraish people in order to let them adhere to Islam, for they are near to their life of Ignorance (i.e. they have newly embraced Islam and it is still not strong in their hearts.” – Sahih Bukhari 4:53:374
The Apostle gave gifts to those whose hearts were to be won over, notably the chiefs of the army, to win them and through them the people. – Ishaq:594
‘Prophet, this group of Ansar have a grudge against you for what you did with the booty and how you divided it among you own people.’ ‘Ansar, what is this talk I hear from you? What is the grudge you harbor against me? Do you think ill of me? Did I not come to you when you were erring and needy, and then made rich by Allah? – Al-Tabari, Vol. 9, p. 36, See Also Ishaq:596
Prophet Said “Do you hold a grudge against me and are you mentally disturbed because of the worldly things by which I conciliate a people and win them over so that they will embrace Islam and become Muslims??” – Al-Tabari, Vol. 9, p. 37, See Also Ishaq:596
Bribing People to Stay Muslims
Narrated Sad (bin Abi Waqqas): Allah’s Apostle distributed something (from the resources of Zakat) amongst a group of people while I was sitting amongst them, but he left a man whom I considered the best of the lot. So, I went up to Allah’s Apostle and asked him secretly, “Why have you left that person? By Allah! I consider him a believer.” The Prophet said, “Or merely a Muslim (Who surrender to Allah).” I remained quiet for a while but could not help repeating my question because of what I knew about him. I said, “O Allah’s Apostle! Why have you left that person? By Allah! I consider him a believer. ” The Prophet said, “Or merely a Muslim.” I remained quiet for a while but could not help repeating my question because of what I knew about him. I said, “O Allah’s Apostle! Why have you left that person? By Allah! I consider him a believer.” The Prophet said, “Or merely a Muslim.” Then Allah’s Apostle (p.b.u.h) said, “I give to a person while another is dearer to me, for fear that he may be thrown in the Hell-fire on his face (by renegating from Islam).” – Sahih Bukhari 2:24:556
Sa’d reported that the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) bestow- ed (some gifts) upon a group of people and I was sitting amongst them. The Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him), however, left a person and he did not give him any. thing. and he seemed to me the most excellent among them (and thus deserved the gifts more than anyone else). So I stood up before the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) and said to him in undertone: Messenger of Allah, what obout so and so? By Allah, I find him a believer. He (the Messenger of Allah) said: He may be a Muslim. I kept quiet for a short while, and then what I knew of him urged me (to plead his case again) and I said: Messenger of Allah, what about so and so? By Allah, I find him a believer. Upon this he (the Holy Prophet) said: He may, be a Muslim. I again remained quiet for a short while, and what I knew of him again urged me (to plead his case so I) said: Messenger of Allah, what about so and so? By Allah, I find him a believer. Upon this he (the Holy Prophet) said: He may be a Muslim. I often bestow (something) upon a person, whereas someone else is dearer to me than he, because of the fear that he may fall headling into the fire. And in the hadith transmitted by Hulwani this statement was repeated twice. – Sahih Muslim 5:2300, See Also: Sahih Muslim 5:2301, and Sahih Muslim 5:2302
Qur’an, Hadith and Scholars:Muhammad and Bribery – https://wikiislam.net/wiki/Qur%27an,_Hadith_and_Scholars:Muhammad_and_Bribery
Muhammad plundered from other people what he gave to those who acknowledged him and/or his god Allah.
Qur’an, Hadith and Scholars:Muhammad and Plundering – https://wikiislam.net/wiki/Qur%27an,_Hadith_and_Scholars:Muhammad_and_Plundering
Understanding Daniel 11:39 in the Hebrew
Here’s a parsed version of the verse:
1) The Prefix of H4013
Look at the 2nd Hebrew word which is translated as for.fortresses-of. The letter ל, named as Lamed, is a prefix; and according to Wikipedia:
As a prefix, it can have two purposes:
1) It can be attached to verb roots, designating the infinitive (Dabermeans “speak”, Ledaber means to speak).
2) It can also act as a preposition meaning “to” or “for” [emphasis added].
The rendering of the prefix by ISA interlinear differs from all English translations I know but the correct rendering of it could only be “to” or “for.”
2) The Consecutive Words H4013 and H4581
From H1219; a fortification, castle, or fortified city; figuratively a defender: – (de-, most) fenced, fortress, (most) strong (hold).
From H5810; a fortified place; figuratively a defence: – force, fort (-ress), rock, strength (-en), (X most) strong (hold).
The two Hebrew words are both nouns and both contain “fortress” and “strong hold” as their meanings. YLT, and MKJV rendered them as “fortresses of the strongholds” while ASV, ESV,ISV, RV, and LITV read “strongest fortresses.”
Now, look at v39 of the Interlinear again, there is no conjunction “and” between the 1st noun H4013 and the 2nd noun H4581. It is said that in Hebrew and in other Semitic languages, there could be a form of genitive construction occurring when two nouns are adjacent to each other. The use of “construct state” is the standard way to do this in the old Semitic languages.
In the older Semitic languages, the use of the construct state is the standard (often only) way to form a genitive construction with a semantically definite modified noun. The modified noun is placed in the construct state, which lacks any definite article (despite being semantically definite), and is often phonetically shortened (as in Biblical Hebrew). The modifying noun is placed directly afterwards, and no other word can intervene between the two.
In grammar, a genitive construction or genitival construction is a type of grammatical construction used to express a relation between two nouns such as the possession of one by another (e.g. “John’s jacket”), or some other type of connection (e.g. “John’s father” or “the father of John”). A genitive construction involves two nouns, the head (or modified noun) and the dependent (or modifier noun). The dependent noun modifies the head by expressing some property of it. For example, in the construction “John’s jacket”, “jacket” is the head and “John’s” is the modifier, expressing a property of the jacket (it is owned by John).
So, as can be seen, the possessed noun H4013 has “of” at its end (it’s not a suffix).
Notice that the 2nd noun H4581 is the word used in the “God of fortresses” in v38 which was reinterpreted in this article as “God of impudent_ones.” The rendering in English of the two nouns by ISA interlinear seems to be inverted. Maybe, it should be:
for.strong-ones-of or for.strongholds-of impudent-ones
In my opinion, the best unparsed English translation of the verse is that of the American Standard Version; it shows a conditionality for receiving bribe and an opportunity to rule and own a land, all of which Muhammad had done or caused.
(Dan 11:39 ASV) And he shall deal with the strongest fortresses by the help of a foreign god: whosoever acknowledgeth him he will increase with glory; and he shall cause them to rule over many, and shall divide the land for a price.
Here’s the definition of the word “glory”:
H3519 כּבד / כּבוד
1) glory, honour, glorious, abundance
1a) abundance, riches
1b) honour, splendour, glory
1c) honour, dignity
1d) honour, reputation
1e) honour, reverence, glory
Part of Speech: noun masculine
The “over many” in the clause “and he shall cause them to rule over many” tells that something is wrong in the translation. The Hebrew for over many is just a single word which has a prefix – the letter Bet.This letter, as a prefix can mean: in, with, on, by but the author can’t find “over” as one of its meanings. The ISA Interlinear rendered this prefix as “in” but the clause will have more sense in relation to the whole verse if this prefix be rendered as “with.” Let’s have a look at the definition of “many”:
H7227 רב rab
1) much, many, great (adjective)
1c) abounding in
1d) more numerous than
1e) abundant, enough
1h) greater than
1i) much, exceedingly
2) captain, chief (noun masculine)
Part of Speech: see above in Definition
The word H7227 can be an adjective or a noun but in Dan 11:39 it is an adjective according to https://biblehub.com/interlinear/daniel/11-39.htm. Its inflected form in v39 has an article, so, the clause could be rendered as:
…and he shall cause them to rule with-the-great/wealthy
The adjective great/wealthy has a corresponding noun form: captain chief.
Another thing, the definition of “rule” in the “and he shall cause them to rule” adds more sense to the 2nd half of the verse:
H4910 משׁל mâshal
1) to rule, have dominion, reign
1a) (Qal) to rule, have dominion
1b1) to cause to rule
1b2) to exercise dominion
Part of Speech: verb
If applied, the 2nd half could be:
…whosoever acknowledgeth him he will increase with glory/riches; and he shall cause them to rule/reign/have_dominion with-the-great/wealthy, and shall divide the land for a price.
To rule/reign/have_dominion and divide land will require conquests.
Conquests with the help of God of disguise
History speaks for itself. Quotes from HISTORYNET:
Muhammad established the belief among his followers that God had commandeered all Muslims’ purposes and property for His efforts and that all Muslims had a responsibility to fight for the faith. Everyone—men, women, and even children—had an obligation for military service in defense of the faith and the ummah that was the community of God’s chosen people on earth. It is essential to understand that the attraction of the Islamic ideology more than anything else produced the manpower that permitted Muhammad’s small revolutionary cadre to evolve into a conventional armed force capable of large-scale engagements.
Muhammad’s armies demonstrated a higher degree of military motivation than traditional Arab armies. Being a good warrior had always been at the center of Arab values, but Muhammad enhanced the warrior’s status. His soldiers were always guaranteed a share in the booty. It became a common saying among Muslims that “the soldier is not only the noblest and most pleasing profession in the sight of Allah, but also the most profitable.” Muhammad’s soldiers were usually paid better than Persian or Byzantine soldiers.
But better pay was only a small part of the new Islamic warriors’ motivation. One of Muhammad’s most important innovations was convincing his troops that they were doing God’s work on earth. There were of course soldiers of other faiths who fought on religious grounds. But no army before Muhammad’s ever placed religion at the center of military motivation and defined the soldier primarily as an instrument of God’s will on earth. The soldiers of Islam came to see themselves as fighting under God’s instructions. The result, still evident in Islamic societies today, was a soldier who enjoyed much higher social status and respect than soldiers in Western armies.
An insurgency must be able to sustain the popular base that supports the fighting elements. To accomplish this, Muhammad changed the ancient customs regarding the sharing of booty taken in raids. The chief of an Arab clan or tribe traditionally took one-fourth of the booty for himself. Muhammad decreed that he receive only one-fifth, and even this the chief took not for himself but in the name of the ummah. Under the old ways individuals kept whatever booty they had captured. Muhammad required that all booty be turned in to a common pool where it was shared equally among all combatants who had participated in the raid. Most important, Muhammad established that the first claimants on the booty that had been taken in the name of the ummah were the poor and the widows and orphans of the soldiers killed in battle. He also used the promise of a larger share of booty to strike alliances with bedouin clans, some of whom remained both loyal and pagan to the end, fighting for loot rather than for Islam.
It could be that the adjective great/wealthy H7227 in v39 which has a corresponding noun forms: captain or chief is pointing to the chiefs of Arab clans or tribes who took one-fifth of the booty in the name of the ummah. Those chiefs could be the “strong ones” and the forts of the clans or tribes the “strong holds” in the 1st half of v39 depending on how H4013 should be translated – strong ones or strong holds.
Now, presented below are quotes from early Muslim historians:
Khaybar was divided among the people who had been at Hudaybiyah. – Tabari VIII:128 “
Khaybar was apportioned among the men of Hudaybiyah without regard to whether they were present at Khaybar or not. The spoil was divided into 1,800 shares. – Ishaq:521
When the spoil of Khaybar was apportioned, the settlements of Shaqq and Nata were given to the Muslims while Katiba was divided into five sections: Allah’s fifth [which Muhammad was custodian]; the Prophet’s fifth; the share to the kindred [Muhammad’s kin]; maintenance of the Prophet’s wives; and payment to the men who acted as intermediaries in the peace negotiation with Fadak. – Ishaq:521
Then the Apostle distributed the booty between his relatives, his wives, and to other men and women. He gave his daughter Fatima 200 shares, Ali 100, Usama 250, Aisha 200, Bakr 100…. In the name of Allah—this is a memorandum of what Muhammad the Apostle gave his wives from the dates and wheat: 180 loads. – Ishaq:522